We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing Today there is a visitors' centre which includes exhibitions and a memorial Nationaal Monument Kamp … Herzogenbusch concentration camp (Dutch: Kamp Vught, German: Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch) was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the city of 's-Hertogenbosch, in the Netherlands.Herzogenbusch was the only concentration camp run directly by the SS in western Europe outside of Germany. Prior to Grünewald’s arrival, prisoners were allowed to maintain a school and engage in religious and cultural ac… Like all the other concentration camps, Herzogenbusch is to be considered as a camp complex, that is, a main camp (Hauptlager) with internal sections and several external detachments or subcamps, some of them located in the immediate vicinity of the main camp, others at a distance of over 96 kilometers (60 miles). [citation needed] When Amersfoort and Westerbork appeared to be too small to handle the large amount of prisoners, the Schutzstaffel (SS) decided to build a concentration camp in Vught near the city of 's-Hertogenbosch. People claimed to have supplied illegal food and smuggled in notes. It is important to note that Herzogenbusch was deliberately designed by the Reich Security Main Offi ce (RSHA) as a Level (Stufe) I and II camp, in terms of the severity of its regime. The dismissal of two camp commandants, a responsibility usually reserved for the WVHA, led to a conflict between Pohl and Rauter. Eventually they reached Vught, and liberated the Herzogenbusch concentration camp with the assistance of a Canadian artillery unit - the only Konzentrationslager or concentration camp ever to be built on Dutch soil. The perpetrators used these locations for a range of purposes, including forced labor, detention of people deemed to be "enemies of the state," and mass murder. Like the other prisoners, the Jews were put to work in different internal and external detachments (Innen-und Aussenkommandos). The food provided was poor, and drinkable water was rare. Herzogenbusch concentration camp (Dutch: Kamp Vught, German: Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch) was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the city of 's-Hertogenbosch, in the Netherlands. 749 prisoners died in the camp… The Herzogenbusch concentration camp was the only SS concentration camp outside Germany and the German annexed territories. Amersfoort got an extremely negative reputation, and the scarce reports about people imprisoned in camps abroad, notably in Germany, suggested even worse conditions. The main camp, the Schutzhaftlager, was in operation throughout Herzogenbusch’s existence. During 's-Hertogenbosch. In this speech, about the specificc qualities of the SS, he did not refrain from calling the camp “an exemplary SS operation” (Musterbetrieb der SS).4. Het is wel teleurstellend, maar we waren erop voorbereid en zijn vol vertrouwen. There is a memorial centre, a preserved part of the old camp that has remained unchanged and the execution grounds where prisoners were shot. Camp Vught (Herzogenbusch concentration camp) was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the city of 's-Hertogenbosch. Two transports, on November 15, 1943, and June 3, 1944, went straight to Auschwitz. Maar erdoor komen we. Herzogenbusch concentration camp. David wrote poems in his diary and taught Jewish children in the camp. Le commandant du camp était le capitaine SS Karl Chmilewski. He did not survive the war. The family was later tranported to the Groß-Rosen camp (Langenbielau). Vol 1, Early Camps, Youth Camps, and Concentration Camps and Subcamps under the SS-Business Administration Main Office (WVHA), ed. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. However, the most impressive and touching publication about Herzogenbusch is a diary kept by prisoner David Koker, a 22-year-old student. 749 prisoners died in the camp, and the others were transferred to other camps shortly before the camp was liberated by the Allied Forces in 1944. A Jewish student, David Koker (b. On February 16, 1944, Himmler endorsed Pohl’s request and transferred Herzogenbusch from Pohl’s responsibility to Rauter’s. Chmilewski was succeeded by Adam Grünewald (October 1943) who worked previously in Dachau and Sachsenhausen. Koker was deported to Auschwitz on June 2, 1944. Usually, the transports to Poland went through Westerbork. This explains why they tried to get assigned to the Philips-Kommando, where life remained relatively acceptable because of the protection of the Philips company management. In 1961, a German court sentenced Chmielewski to life imprisonment. Herzogenbusch concentration camp ( ) (Dutch: Kamp Vught, German: Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch) was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the city of 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands.Herzogenbusch was the only concentration camp run directly by the SS in western Europe outside of Germany. Later he enlarged this article into “Das Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch—Ein ‘Musterbetrieb der SS?’ ” in Die nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager—Entwicklung und Struktur, ed. Apart from Jews these included, amongst others, Roma (gypsies), resistance activists and Jehovah’s witnesses. The first camp commandant was SS-Hauptsturmfuhrer Karl Walter Chmielewski, who previously served in Sachsenhausen. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. The camp was opened in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. Main telephone: 202.488.0400 (Arolsen, 1979), 1:154–157. In the end, the camp took up 300,000 square meters (359,000 square yards) and consisted of 36 barracks for living, sleeping, and working. [7], The last commander of Herzogenbusch was 50-year-old Hans Hüttig. The common name for the camp was "Vught" after the district in which the camp was located. In May 1943, the prisoner population reached its maximum of 9,000 people. [2] The camp was modelled on concentration camps in Germany. Les premiers prisonniers arrivèrent à Vught le 13 janvier 1943. The camp had a crematorium but not a gas chamber. About 30,000 inmates passed through the camp of which about 12,000 were Jews. In the beginning of December 1942, Rauter’s superior, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, following Rauter’s regular updates, ordered that Herzogenbusch had to be considered an “official” concentration camp, in other words, a camp under direct supervision of the Berlin offices of the SS-Business Administration Main Office (WVHA). People from this group of prisoners were executed in August and September 1944. Le musée est composé d’un espace intérieur et extérieur. View the list of all donors. Still, parts of the old camp remain. ... Lots of love everyone, thanks for everything. The grounds now house an educational museum about the camp (known in Dutch as Nationaal Monument Kamp Vught),[9] a Dutch military base called Van Brederodekazerne, a neighbourhood of Maluku refugees, and a high security prison called Nieuw Vosseveld. Pohl was clearly disappointed with, in his eyes, the lack of appropriate action taken by his Berlin superiors. The second group did not enter the camp before October 1943. In February 1943, the Geisellager was set up. Watchtowers and barbed wire fences in the camp, Herzogenbusch concentration camp (German pronunciation: [hɛɐtsoːgənbuʃ][Stress?]) Most of the prisoners were considered to be important enough for the Germans that they were put in the so-called Bunker, the camp prison. Pohl is referring to this decision in a letter to Rauter, March 29, 1944 (BDC H540: 3649, copied at NIOD), in which he suggests to hand over the camp to Rauter from May 1, 1944. That will take a long time. The Nazis transported Jewish and other prisoners from the Netherlands via the transit camps Amersfoort and Westerbork to concentration camps such as Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen. . On the contrary, testimonies clearly indicate that members of the guard force started to destroy the archives shortly before the final evacuation of the prisoners. This diary runs from February 11, 1943, through February 8, 1944. During the first few months, the camp was poorly run: prisoners didn't receive meals, the sick were barely treated, and the quality of drinking water was very low. Among other things, he was responsible for the massive shootings of prisoners in August and September 1944 and for the evacuation transports afterward. Portions of Rauter’s correspondence with Himmler and Pohl are to be found in the collection of the former BDC (later BADH) and published by former NIOD staff member N.K.C.A. Because Herzogenbusch was not liberated by Allied forces—it was evacuated before their arrival—its prisoners were not in the position to get hold of camp records and take them home. The immediate cause for this change was the massive overflow of prisoners under investigation (Untersuchungshäftlinge), whose number was far too large to be put up in the prisons of the German police. Until the present day, the NIOD collection of Herzogenbusch documents, although fragmentary, is to be considered the main source for serious research into the history of the camp complex. 100 Raoul Wallenberg Place, SW The building of a camp at Herzogenbusch, a German micturate for 's-Hertogenbosch, started in 1942. On a theoretical level, Rauter’s last statement can be qualified as highly contradictory. 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