Final report on US Department of Energy", "A study on the EU oil shale industry viewed in the light of the Estonian experience. shale gas definition: 1. natural gas that is found in shale (= a type of soft, grey rock): 2. natural gas that is found…. Meanwhile, the development of fracking techniques has grown rapidly since the 1950s, with the discovery and exploitation of shale formations in the United States throughout the 1970s and 1980s. The oil price that companies need to profitably drill new wells has closely tracked prices for long-dated oil futures in recent years. Up to 1/3 of the rock can be solid kerogen. Shale Oil Production. In The History of On-Shore Hydrocarbon Use in the UK", "Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Shale oil is the oil that is produced in an informal way from the oil shale rock formations by using different techniques. In addition, the process is sometimes criticized for the destructive impact on the environment. Now, COVID-19 has put the sector under pressure. Info. "[23][24], The amount of oil that can be recovered during retorting varies with the oil shale and the technology used. George P. Mitchell pioneered modern shale drilling, which combined the decades-old technologies of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, and horizontal drilling to crack open shale rock and tap into previously inaccessible reservoirs of crude and natural gas. The emergence of U.S. shale production seems to be playing a large role in anchoring long-term oil prices. Shale oil outpaced OPEC in terms of production increase in the past decade—between 2008 and 2018, OPEC added 2.05 mb/d or 17.6 percent of the global supply increase, while the United States supplied 8.53 mb/d of new oil, accounting for 73.2 percent of the increase. Oil shale, despite the name, does not actually contain oil, but is a precursor of oil that is converted to crude oil when heated. Exploring Types of Natural Gas Liquids – NGL, U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Shale oil is also different than oil shale. Essentially, it is oil trapped in solid form inside various rock formations. Shale Region. Oil shale is a type of sedimentary rock that is rich in kerogen. Tight oil has become the largest source of domestic oil in the United States. Oil shale - Oil shale - Organic content: The organic matter contained in oil shale is principally kerogen, a solid product of bacterially altered plant and animal remains that is not soluble in traditional petroleum solvents. Shale oil, in fossil fuel production, either a synthetic crude oil that is extracted from oil shale by means of pyrolysis or a naturally occurring crude oil that is extracted from underground shale deposits by means of fracking (hydraulic fracturing).. The “Shale Revolution” refers to the combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling that enabled the United States to significantly increase its production of oil and natural gas, particularly from tight oil formations, which now account for 36% of total U.S. crude oil production. 54–56. Distillate oils from the Kiviter process can also be used as diluents for petroleum-originated heavy oils and as an adhesive-enhancing additive in bituminous materials such as asphalt. Oil Shale is a sedimentary rock that has naturally occurring mixture of organic chemical compounds called as “Kerogen” which when heated yields crude oil. Shale oil comprises more than a third of the onshore production of crude oil in the lower 48 states. The resulting oil can be used immediately as a fuel or upgraded to meet refinery feedstock specifications by adding hydrogen and removing impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen. Learn more. It drove U.S. oil output from 8.8 million barrels per day in 2014 to a record 12.2 million barrels a day in 2019. The discovery of crude oil in the Middle East during mid-century brought most of these industries to a halt, although Estonia and Northeast China maintained their extraction industries into the early 21st century. [16][17] The pyrolysis of the rock is performed in a retort, situated either above ground or within the rock formation itself. [1] The International Energy Agency recommends to use the term "light tight oil" and World Energy Resources 2013 report by the World Energy Council uses the term "tight oil" for crude oil in oil-bearing shales. 1,144,000 bpd Proper usage and audio pronunciation (plus IPA phonetic transcription) of the word shale oil. [4] In the 10th century, the Arabic physician Masawaih al-Mardini (Mesue the Younger) first described a method of extracting oil from "some kind of bituminous shale". The oxygen within the oil, present at higher levels than in crude oil, lends itself to the formation of destructive free radicals. [26] VKG Oil claims to produce 250,000 tons of oil per year from 2 million tons of shale, a yield of 13%. [27] Petrobras produces in their Petrosix plant 550 tons of oil per day from 6,200 tons of shale, a yield of 9%. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. Meaning of shale oil. Oil shale definition, a black or dark-brown shale or siltstone rich in bitumens, from which shale oil is obtained by destructive distillation. U.S. oil and gas shares and drilling activity are edging higher, but a disastrous year for the energy industry means the go-go days of the shale boom may be gone for good. It served as a substitute for the increasingly scarce and expensive whale oil. Tight oil differs from shale oil because tight oil can be extracted from not just shale formations but also sandstone and carbonates. Countries with the largest amount of technically recoverable shale oil resources include Russia, the United States, China, Argentina, and Libya. Some organic-rich shales, called oil shales, contain kerogen (a chemically complex mixture of solid hydrocarbons derived from plant and animal matter) in large enough quantities to yield oil when subjected to intense heat. The refined products can be used for the same purposes as those derived from crude oil. WordSense.eu - English dictionary containing information about the meaning, the spelling, anagrams and more.We answer the question: What does shale oil‎ mean? Primary uses include heating oil, marine fuel, and the production of various chemicals. Definition of shale oil. Shale … Shale oil has not to exposed to sufficient pressure and temperature to convert trapped hydrocarbons into crude oil. Information about shale oil in the AudioEnglish.org dictionary, synonyms and antonyms. [30][32][33], Shale oil contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are carcinogenic. Fracking is a slang term for hydraulic fracturing. Mineral particles and metals are often present as well. [11] The oil was used as fuel, as a lubricant and lamp oil; the Industrial Revolution had created additional demand for lighting. [6] In 1596, the personal physician of Frederick I, Duke of Württemberg wrote of its healing properties. In the United States, the largest formations providing shale oil are found in the Permian, Eagle Ford, and Bakken Basins. These processes convert the organic matter within the rock (kerogen) into synthetic oil and gas. Because oil shale requires mining and energy-intensive refining processes, it's a substantially dirtier energy source than conventional liquid oil. HOUSTON/NEW YORK (Reuters) - U.S. oil and gas shares and drilling activity are edging higher, but a disastrous year for the energy industry means the go-go days of the shale … Definition - What does Oil Shale mean? The refined products can be used for the same purposes as those derived from crude oil. What does shale oil mean? China, Estonia, New Zealand, South Africa, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland produced shale oil in the early 20th century. Fracturing shallow, hard rock wells to extract oil dates back to the 1860s. ‘Carbonaceous shale, including oil shale, occurs in beds of clayey to silty mudrock from 0.3 to 3 m thick.’ ‘The term ‘fossil fuels’ is commonly used for the materials tar sands, oil, gas condensates, natural gas, coal, and oil shale and their products.’ A hydrocarbon is an organic chemical compound composed exclusively of hydrogen and carbon atoms. Definition of oil shale in the AudioEnglish.org Dictionary. ‘The targets are oil, coal, shale oil, and, if you believe the oil industry's press releases, the largest trove of natural gas on the continent.’ ‘The first oil refinery in Australia to contain a catalytic cracking unit was at Glen Davis, producing 160000 barrels a day of crude shale oil.’ Shale definition: Shale is smooth soft rock that breaks easily into thin layers. The global economic expansion of the last decade was in large part sustained by the increase in shale oil production, without which oil price spikes would have destroyed the recovery. Depositsof oil shale occur around the … "[7][8][9] Later sold as Betton's British Oil, the distilled product was said to have been "tried by diverse persons in Aches and Pains with much benefit. What does shale mean? "About technical terms of oil shale and shale oil", "Oil & Gas Shales, Definitions & Distribution In Time & Space. [14][41] The oil and natural gas industry often refers to tight oil rather than shale oil when estimating production and resources. Oil shale is a rock that contains significant amounts of organic material in the form of kerogen. [34] The World Health Organization classifies shale oil as Group 1 carcinogens to humans. [37][38] Olefins form insoluble sediments and cause instability. A typical shale oil composition includes 0.5–1% of oxygen, 1.5–2% of nitrogen and 0.15–1% of sulfur, and some deposits contain more heteroatoms. [47], Oil produced from oil shale rock fragments, This article is about synthetic petroleum produced from oil shale. [31][41][42] Additional cracking can create the lighter hydrocarbons used in gasoline. [14], The production of shale oil has been hindered because of technical difficulties and costs. Definition of shale oil in the AudioEnglish.org Dictionary. Oil Shale. The shale play is one of the largest in terms of geographic area, and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) estimates the formation’s total area to be around 95,000 square miles, ranging in … This is because tight oil may be extracted from rock formations that, in addition to shale formations, include sandstone and carbonates. shale-oil: A trade-name of mineral oil produced by the destructive distillation of bituminous shale, chiefly in the south of Scotland. The rise of U.S. shale shook up world energy markets in recent years. [15] About one sixth of the oil shales in the Green River Formation have a relatively high yield of 25 to 100 US gallons (95 to 379 l; 21 to 83 imp gal) of shale oil per ton of oil shale; about one third yield from 10 to 25 US gallons (38 to 95 l; 8.3 to 20.8 imp gal) per ton. States. That is, oil shale is the sedimentary rock formation containing a type of organic matter called kerogen that yields oil and gas. The “Shale Revolution” refers to the combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling that enabled the United States to significantly increase its production of oil and natural gas, particularly from tight oil formations, which now account for 36% of total U.S. crude oil production. [7] The British Crown granted a patent in 1694 to three persons who had "found a way to extract and make great quantities of pitch, tarr and oyle out of a sort of stone. “Shale wells lose as much as 70 percent of their production in the first year, meaning that explorers have to constantly pour money into more drilling just to maintain production. shale oil synonyms, shale oil pronunciation, shale oil translation, English dictionary definition of shale oil. As of 2008, it is primarily used as a heating oil and marine fuel, and to a lesser extent in the production of various chemicals. The Marcellus Shale lies under the Appalachian Basin, and spreads across New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Maryland, Tennessee, Virginia and Kentucky. In the aftermath of the 2014 oil crash, U.S. shale learned a painful lesson: Not all hedging strategies pay off. Kerogen is a part of rock that breaks down and releases hydrocarbons when heated. "[10] Modern shale oil extraction industries were established in France during the 1830s and in Scotland during the 1840s. Shale oil definition: an oil distilled from shales and used as fuel | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Shale oil refers to hydrocarbons that are trapped in formations of shale rock. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples shale - a sedimentary rock formed by the deposition of successive layers of clay. Shale oil and shale gas formations can be found around the world. It is used in heating oil, marine fuels, and the production of various chemicals. [35], Although raw shale oil can be immediately burnt as a fuel oil, many of its applications require that it be upgraded. WordSense.eu Dictionary: shale oil - meaning, definition, anagrams. The shale industry will be the greatest short and medium-term contributor to the supply destruction that the current oil price environment is inflicting on the global oil industry. half shark, half whale. Oil shale is a type of sedimentary rock that is rich in kerogen. Decomposition takes place most quickly at a temperature between 480 and 520 °C (900 and 970 °F). A fissile rock composed of layers of claylike, fine-grained sediments. Oil companies produce shale oil by … The techniques, such as thermal dissolution, pyrolysis and hydrogenation lead to the conversion of the organic matter into artificially matured oil. Definition of oil shale. Shale oil, likely responsible for an outsized climate impact over the last decade, ... meaning its liabilities exceed its assets. It is generally less economical than conventional crude oil. Kerogen is the source of virtually all crude oil. Through these processes, we take the organic matter within the rock (kerogen) and convert into synthetic oil and gas. Oil Shale Research and Development Project", United States Environmental Protection Agency, International Agency for Research on Cancer, "Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes 1–102", "Selective Biodegradation of S and N Heterocycles by a Recombinant Rhodococcus erythropolis Strain Containing Carbazole Dioxygenase", "Process for treating hot shale oil effluent from a retort – US Patent # 4181596", "A brief overview of motor fuels from shale oil of kukersite", "Estonian Oil Shale Retorting Industry at a Crossroads", "Oil Shale: History, Incentives and Policy", "NPR's National Strategic Unconventional Resource Model", "Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Possible Land Use Plan Amendments for Allocation of Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resources on Lands Administered by the Bureau of Land Management in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shale_oil&oldid=995956082, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with dead external links from November 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 19:37. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales). Shale oil is a type of unconventional oil found in shale formations that must be hydraulically fractured to extract the oil. [36], Shale oil's concentration of high-boiling point compounds is suited for the production of middle distillates such as kerosene, jet fuel and diesel fuel. Since 2014, U.S. shale oil has created a boom in domestic crude oil production. New York, NY: Wiley & Sons Inc., 2006. [30][31][39][40] Phenols can be first be removed by water extraction. [21] More recent studies estimates the EROEI of oil shales to be 1–2:1 or 2–16:1 – depending on whether self-energy is counted as a cost or internal energy is excluded and only purchased energy is counted as input. ‘Carbonaceous shale, including oil shale, occurs in beds of clayey to silty mudrock from 0.3 to 3 m thick.’ ‘The term ‘fossil fuels’ is commonly used for the materials tar sands, oil, gas condensates, natural gas, coal, and oil shale and their products.’ shale meaning: 1. a type of soft, grey rock, usually formed from clay that has become hard, that breaks easily…. Information about oil shale in the AudioEnglish.org dictionary, synonyms and antonyms. Although shale-oil plays with oil stored in open-fractured shale have been pursued for more than 100 yr, organic-rich and low-permeability shales and hybrid shale-oil systems are now being pursued based on knowledge and technologies gained from production of shale-gas resource systems and likely hold the largest untapped oil resource potential. You can also find multiple synonyms or similar words of Shale Oil. Natural gas liquids are components of natural gas that are separated from the gas state in the form of liquids. OPEC’s oil ministers have a few challenges to consider at a crucial summit next week, but for the first time in years the shale boom won’t be at the top of the list. Shale oil is made possible thanks to advances in horizontal drilling and fracking. Liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons can be extracted from oil shale, but the rock must be heated and/or treated with solvents. Nevertheless, U.S. production of shale oil has increased significantly since 2010, driven by technological improvements that have reduced drilling costs and improved drilling efficiency in major shale producing areas, such as the Bakken, Eagle Ford, and the Permian Basin. It has been described that raw shale oil has a mild carcinogenic potential which is comparable to some intermediate refinery products, while upgraded shale oil has lower carcinogenic potential as most of the polycyclic aromatics are believed to broken down by hydrogenation. Video shows what oil shale means. [44][45] Worldwide production of shale oil was estimated at 17,700 barrels per day (2,810 m3/d) in 2008. [15], Shale oil is extracted by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution of oil shale. See more. Shale oil can, in fact, refer to two types of oil: crude oil that is found within shale formations or oil that is extracted from oil shale. Shale oil can also contain significant quantities of heteroatoms. The richest oil shale ranges from brown to black in colour. Oil shale definition: a fine-grained shale containing oil , which can be extracted by heating | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples [16], Hydrogenation and thermal dissolution (reactive fluid processes) extract the oil using hydrogen donors, solvents, or a combination of these. Shale oil is a high-quality crude oil that lies between layers of shale rock, impermeable mudstone, or siltstone. The kerogen deposits on shale oil rocks gently convert into crude oil by natural processes. Oil shale shouldn't be confused with "shale oil," also called “tight oil,” a more commonly produced type of unconventional oil that's found trapped in limestone or sandstone rocks. HOUSTON/NEW YORK (Reuters) - U.S. oil and gas shares and drilling activity are edging higher, but a disastrous year for the energy industry means the go-go days of the shale … Vol.1 History of the industry, working conditions and mineralogy of Scottish and Green River formation shales. The resulting oil can be used immediately as a fuel or upgraded to meet refinery feedstock specifications by adding hydrogen and removing impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen. The shale revolution, which kicked off in 2006 with natural gas and later shifted to crude oil in 2010, propelled the United States into the world’s top producer and a net exporter of oil and gas, weaning the country from its dependence on foreign oil. [7] Shale oil was used to light the streets of Modena, Italy at the turn of the 18th century. [22] Royal Dutch Shell reported an EROEI of three to four in 2006 on its in situ development in the "Mahogany Research Project. The oil resulting from this processing can either be used immediately as a fuel or processed some more to meet r… The Government is encouraging safe and environmentally sound exploration to determine our shale potential. Permeability refers to the ability of fluids and gases to pass through the rock. The page not only provides Urdu meaning of Shale Oil but also gives extensive definition in English language. Sulfur and nitrogen, along with the arsenic and iron that may be present, also destroy the catalysts used in refining. Hydrocarbons are substances made entirely of hydrogen and carbon. a sedimentary rock containing kerogen from which petroleum-like shale oil can be produced by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution.. oil shale … It consists mainly of hydrocarbons of the paraffin, olefine, and crotonylen series, and yields as the principal commercial products illuminating- … However, to reduce the risk of confusion of shale oil produced from oil shale with crude oil in oil-bearing shales, the term "tight oil" is preferred for the latter. oil-shale: Shaly rocks containing bituminous matter or petroleum in sufficient quantity to be of economical value; shales or clays in which a considerable quantity of organic (hydrocarbonaceous) matter has been preserved and is diffused through the mass of the rock. Zero cash takeovers for Permian producers is a very bad signal for the rest of the industry. Shale oil is also often referred to as synthetic oil and gas or Kerogen. Numerous oil rigs set up in Texas in 2016. [2][3], Oil shale was one of the first sources of mineral oil used by humans. Shale's struggles are making news around the globe and could have various implications for the Canadian oil and gas sector, whether it's on prices or discussions on energy security. [17][18][19][20], A critical measure of the viability of extraction of shale oil lies in the ratio of the energy produced by the oil shale to the energy used in its mining and processing, a ratio known as "Energy Returned on Energy Invested" (EROEI). Fushun Mining Group reports producing 300,000 tons per year of shale oil from 6.6 million tons of shale, a yield of 4.5% by weight. Crude oil production in the U.S. shale patch is set to decline by 68,000 bpd next month, with every play registering declines in output except the Permian Different methods produce shale oil with different properties. Many people get confused by the terms Oil Shale and Shale Oil; however, both are completely different. A report by EASAC to the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy of the European Parliament", American Association of Petroleum Geologists, "Geology and resources of some world oil-shale deposits. Shale oil is also different than oil shale, which is a type of sedimentary rock that has low permeability and bituminous-like (consisting mainly of hydrocarbons) solids that can be liquefied during the extraction process. See more. [31][43], Global technically recoverable oil shale reserves have recently been estimated at about 2.8 to 3.3 trillion barrels (450×10^9 to 520×10^9 m3) of shale oil, with the largest reserves in the United States, which is thought to have 1.5–2.6 trillion barrels (240×10^9–410×10^9 m3). Crude oil occurs in underground at elevated pressure and temperature. It’s a true game changer for the U.S. economy, and its impact is only in the early stages. Learn more. Oil shale is a rock that contains significant amounts of organic material in the form of kerogen. First, let us understand more about shale rock. Liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons can be extracted from oil shale, but the rock must be heated and/or treated with solvents. Hydraulic fracturing stimulates better flow in oil and gas plays by injecting a high-pressure liquid and sand mixture into the wellbore. Scientific Investigations Report 2005–5294", "Using neoteric solvents in oil shale studies", "Energy and the U.S. Economy: A Biophysical Perspective", "Oil Shale Test Project. Another 20% will teeter on the edge. The shale industry has made America the world’s top producer of crude oil. This has allowed companies to start extracting oil and gas from less-permeable rocks such as shale, opening up vast new fields collectively called unconventional reservoirs. The Marcellus Shale lies under the Appalachian Basin, and spreads across New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Maryland, Tennessee, Virginia and Kentucky. Proper usage and audio pronunciation (plus IPA phonetic transcription) of the word oil shale. What does oil shale mean? Crude oil production in the U.S. shale patch is set to decline by 68,000 bpd next month, with every play registering declines in output except the Permian Shale has huge competition to fill remaining oil demand. [11][14][15] In response to rising petroleum costs at the turn of the 21st century, extraction operations have commenced, been explored, or been renewed in the United States, China, Australia and Jordan. : a crude dark oil obtained from oil shale by heating. As of 2008, most oil shale industries perform the shale oil extraction process after the rock is mined, crushed and transported to a retorting facility, although several experimental technologies perform the process in place (in-situ). This temperature and pressure vary with the depth of the reservoir. Afterwards, it was used as a raw material for chemical intermediates, pure chemicals and industrial resins, and as a railroad wood preservative. Petroleum and natural gas are probably the most familiar hydrocarbons. [46] In March 2011, the United States Bureau of Land Management called into question proposals in the U.S. for commercial operations, stating that "(t)here are no economically viable ways yet known to extract and process oil shale for commercial purposes". : a rock (such as shale) from which oil can be recovered by distillation. Permian Basin. The remaining shale oil companies are hoarding cash to stay alive. Producing shale oil from shale rock has been traditionally more expensive than conventional crude oil. [25], The major global shale oil producers have published their yields for their commercial operations. Energy and the Environment-2nd ed. 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