The fruit is also known to kill the snails carrying schistosomiasis and bilharzia flukes (Booth and Wickens, 1988). Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Extended boiling also releases a yellow oil … Hardman R, Sofowora EA, 1972. A preliminary report on trial plantings of woody species in arid and semi-arid northern Kenya. Nutritive value of, Mtui, D. J. ; Lekule, F. P. ; Shem, M. N. ; Hayashida, M. ; Fujihara, T., 2008. Techniques and species to use. Woody plants of the Sahel, [west African] Sudan and Guinea. Second edition, Vol. ICRAF, 1998. Blair Rains, A., 1963. Balanites aegyptiaca. Hutchinson J, 1973. J. Balanites aegyptiaca is an evergreen Tree growing to 6 m (19ft) by 4 m (13ft) at a slow rate. La Vegetation du Sahara du Tchad a la Mautanie. Drupe yellowish or green, up to 5 × 2.5 cm., usually subcylindric, more rarely narrowly ellipsoid or subobclavate, finely puberulous, sometimes glabrescent (Flora Zambesiaca, 2016). North of the equator, B. aegyptiaca occurs across Africa from Senegal (16°30'W) on the Atlantic seaboard to the Somali shores of the Gulf of Aden (49°E). The fruits are also used to brew an alcoholic drink. Kikuyu, Kenya: Dryland Agroforestry Research Project. Stevens PF, 2012. Balanites aegyptiaca (Linn.) In: Buck L, ed. New York, USA: Ronald Press. Some edaphic vegetational types at Kiboko, Kenya. Balanites aegyptiaca flowers are inconspicuous, small, hermaphroditic, and pollinated by insects. Burg WJ van der, Freitas J de, Debrot AO, Lotz LAP, Burg WJ van der, Freitas J de, Debrot AO, Lotz LAP, 2012. Balanites aegyptiaca fruit aqueous extract succeeded in reducing significantly the elevated mean plasma glucose level of the BAETD group in comparison with the DC group. http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/agpc/doc/gbase/new_grasses/balaeg.htm, Flora Zambesiaca, 2016. Publications de I'Institut National de Recherche Scientifique, 21. Reforestation in arid lands. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Memoir of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 10. Hall and Walker (1991) report that B. aegyptiaca has a chromosome number of 2n = 18, speculating a base number of x = 9 for the family, although values of 2n = 16 have also been reported. Check list of the forest trees and shrubs of the Nyasaland Protectorate. In: The useful plants of west Tropical Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: International Council for Research in Agroforestry. Kassas M, 1956. Feed Sci. Del, Ximenia aegyptiaca L., Agialida aegyptiaca (L.) O. Kuntze, Balanites roxburghii Planch., Agialida aegyptiaca Kuntze, Balanites racemosa Chiov., Balanites ferox G. Don. Serengeti. Vol.1,Fasc.II. Few fertilized flowers (5-10%) produce mature fruit. ; many ref. Boutique R). More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. Geobotanical Foundations of the Middle East (Geobotanica Selects, 3). Arap Sang FK, Hoekstra DA, Mwendandu R, 1985. The fruit kernel is rich in … The fruit kernel is rich in lipids (46.2 g/100 g DM) and proteins (29.5 g/100 g DM). Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, 42(1/2). It is a small evergreen savanna tree with a dark brown stem which usually attains a height of 4.5-6 m (Koko et al., 2005a). [Guide de terrain des ligneux sahelien et soudano-guineens.] In Curacao, B. aegyptiaca is considered an aggressive invasive species (Burg et al., 2012). The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. Hall, J. Journal of Ecology, 17:351-355. Vienna, Austria: UNIDO. Click here to navigate to parent product. 1, Fasc. Individuals occur singly and full crown exposure is typical, particularly as the species is often taller than any of its associates. Ladipo DO, 1989. Tropical trees and forests: an architectural analysis. B. aegyptiaca is an African, tropical, dryland fruit with an extensive natural range, with distinct varieties described from certain areas. Burtt-Davy J, Hoyle AC, 1958. Bernus E, 1979. The fruit is eaten by school children as … Under suitable conditions, the hypogeal germination takes 1 week. PubMed:Unraveling the active hypoglycemic agent trigonelline in Balanites aegyptiaca date fruit using metabolite fingerprinting by NMR. Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA. Neue afrikanische Microlepidoptera. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Leaves are bi-foliolate and spirally arranged on the shoots, dark green or grey-green, fleshy succulent with 2 firm coriaceous leaflets. Barking, UK: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, 166-169. The toxicity is due to a saponin that becomes rapidly inert so that fish killed such this way are edible. CIRAD. In: Hedberg I, Edwards S, eds. Bulletin, 49 Washington, USA: USDA. It is also a good source of degradable protein though it needs mineral supplementation (Fadel Elseed et al., 2002) since it is poor in P and Cu (Mtui et al., 2008). It prefers moist or wet soil. Ecology of a key African multipurpose tree species, Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae): the state-of-knowledge., Forest Ecology and Management, 50(1-2):1-30. First Published 2001. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 71(1):52-56. However, pure stands can occur as Balanites trees are often left when other trees are felled due to their value (Suliman and Jackson, 1960; Booth and Wickens, 1988).Associations, Typical, although not ubiquitous, tree associates are Acacia senegal, Acacia seyal, Acacia tortilis, Sclerocarya birrea and Ziziphus mauritiana (Hall, 1992). Agroforestry Systems, 9:17-27. An analysis of Nigerian savanna. The fresh and dried leaves, fruits and sprouts are all used as forage for livestock. Flora of Ethiopia, Vol. Priesner H, 1929. Keay RWJ, Onochie CFA, Stanfield, DP, 1960. Nairobi, Kenya: International Council for Research in Agroforestry. United Nations Industrial Development Organization Report TF/INT/77/021. Cymbopogon Schoenanthus (Lemongrass) Oil (origin: lemongrass): Essential oil with anti-septic qualities, leaving the hair and scalp feeling clean and clear. Dale IR, Greenway PJ, 1961. Gum from the wood is mixed with maize meal porridge to treat chest complaints. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/. [[Revised by Topham, P.]. The use of Balanites kernel cake in a diet for fattening sheep. The green leaves, and particularly the green shoots, are commonly used as animal forage. Grasas y Aceites, 37(2):81-85. (Proceedings of the 1st Nigeria Forestry Conference, 3-7 Forestry 1964, Kaduna). The reproductive phenology of B. aegyptiaca varies across Africa. PubMed:Aldose reductase inhibition of a saponin-rich fraction and new furostanol saponin derivatives from Balanites aegyptiaca. 1960). IBPGR-Kew, 1984. Fence and barrier plants in warm climates. Chemical composition and nutritional value of browse in tropical West Africa. As a thorny tree, B. aegyptiaca is often planted for fencing and to make livestock enclosure (Booth and Wickens, 1988; Orwa et al., 2009; FAO, 2016; PROTA, 2016). The fruitâ s ingredients are not toxic to humans or domestic animals. Zohary M, Heyn CC, Heller D, 1983. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0., http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sites/treedbs/treedatabases.asp. Naturalised and invasive alien plant species in the Caribbean Netherlands: status distribution, threats, priorities and recommendations. Ciccarone A, 1951. Journal of Natural History, 7(3):307-318. Evidence suggests use in Egypt and the Near East for 4000 years. First Published 2001. In Nigeria, flowering varies between November and April with ripe fruits becoming available in December and January and occasionally later, from March to July (Orwa et al., 2009). Regional Soil Conservation Unit (RSCU). Botanical Review, 47:1-142. In the framework of the building-resilience-and-adaptation-climate-extremes-and-disasters (BRACED) programme, high-value indigenous tree species of tropical Africa including Balanites aegyptiaca were enrolled in a domestication programme aiming at increasing and securing fruit and seed production while conserving genetic resources. Flora of West Tropical Africa, 2nd edition. The present study aimed to explore the role of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits against the adult D. caninum, and whether its methanolic extract had any effect on the tegument of adult cestode which is essential for the protective function, following 12- and 24-h incubation in vitro. The vegetation of Africa. Shrub and tree species for energy production. Arbres et arbustes du Sahel. Acacia albida and other multipurpose trees on the Fur farmlands in the Jebel Marra highlands, Western Darfur, Sudan. B. aegyptiaca also resists seasonal but not prolonged flooding (Booth and Wickens, 1988; Janick and Paull, 2008). They are sought after by sheep, goats and cattle, and ... Fruit. Food and Fruit Trees of the Gambia. FAO, Rome, Italy, FUSAGx/CRAW, 2009. World Agroforestry Centre, Kenya, Sanon, H. O. ; Nianogo, J. Vol. Part 2. Jounal of Ecology, 44:180-194. Res. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Dakar, Senegal: Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA). Forest tree planting in arid zones. It is commonly seen in Israel, Jordan, the Arabian Peninsula, and the drier parts of Pakistan and India. Imprint CRC Press. Edition 1st Edition. Dried powdered Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del leaves and fruit-mesocarp … pl. Bein E, Habte B, Jaber A, Birnie A, Tegnäs Bo, 1996. 40. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. This study was carried out to assess, for the first time, the effectiveness of methanolic extract of Balanites aegyptiaca (BAE) fruits against different stages (pre-adult, migrating larvae, and encysted larvae) of Trichinella spiralis in rats compared with commonly used anthelmintic albendazole. The tree is lopped for fodder in India. Palgrave (1983) reports that in southern Africa (unimodal rainfall) the tree flowers in November (during the rainy season) and the fruit is ready in April, the end of the rainy season. Dakar, Senegal: Editions Clairafrique. Stuttgart, Germany: Fischer. Misc. Balanites aegyptiaca is a species of tree, classified either as a member of the Zygophyllaceae or the Balanitaceae. Furthermore, the Balanites aegyptiaca fruit is used to treat liver diseases and also as a purgative. Forest vegetation in the savannas of the Central African Republic. Booth F E M, Wickens G E, 1988. Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae) is a widely distributed African plant of medicinal interest (Speroni et al., 2005). Re: Desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca), mentioned in Lost Crops of Africa Volume 3 « Reply #5 on: May 05, 2012, 05:03:01 AM » Thanks - not so sure about the pulp to seed ratio but I understand that even if it has been cultivated for many years, there are a need for selection as some strains produce bitter pulp others sweet. Trees for development in Sub Saharan Africa. It is not clear whether semi-deciduous behaviour begins in the first season or later, but fruiting commences after 5-7 years (Maydell, 1986). Timber is suitable for small furniture, domestic utensils, and agricultural tools (FAO, 2016; PROTA, 2016). Notes on trees and shrubs in arid and semi-arid regions. Nevertheless it was reported in Côte d’Ivoire that the saponin damages the sight of fishermen after they have used it for five or six years (Orwa et al., 2009). Agric. In: Le Houerou HN, ed, Browse in Africa: The Current State of Knowledge. Agroforestry Systems, 4(2):89-119. 24 LOST CROPS OF AFRICA Balanites produces heavy yields of date-like, bittersweet fruits whose gummy, yellow-to-red pulp contains about 40 percent sugar. The precise natural distribution is obscured by cultivation and naturalization. In: Federal Experiment Station in Puerto Rico. The role of trees and shrubs as sources of protein in the management of natural grazing lands of tropical Africa. Vollesen K, 1980. Nairobi, Kenya: International Council for Research in Agroforestry. ; many col. Ndola, Zambia: The Forest Department. Res. Balanites aegyptiaca. Burkill HM, 1985. Brussels, Belgium: Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique du Congo Belge, 65-68. ICRAF, 1988. The crude protein content is the highest during the wet season. Berlin, Germany: Springer. Natural Resources Research, UNESCO. Paris, France: Centre National de Recherches Scientifiques. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp. SPECIES INFORMATION Botanical Name Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. Sheep, goats, cattle and camels eat fruits and disperse the seeds. Edition 1st Edition. In: Excell AW, Fernandes A, Wild H, eds. Non-conventional vegetable oils for fuel in Kenya. In Puerto Rico, it was grown from seeds introduced in 1936 from Palestine, South Africa, and Kenya. [Conspectus Florae angolensis. Balanites aegyptiaca (simple-thorned torchwood); twigs with leaves and seperate fruit. According to Gad and coworkers [ 6 Burtt BD, 1929. Proceedings of the Eighth World Forestry Congress, Jakarta, Indonesia, 16-28 Oct.(World Forestry Congress: Forestry for food): FFF-10-11. The Seeds of Dicotyledons, Vol. Techniques et especes a utiliser.]. Sudan Government Forestry Bulletin (New Series), 1:1-80. Pollen grain production is prolific (approx. long, ovate or ovate-oblong, glabrous; filaments c. 3.75 mm. Shed, dried leaves are also sought after by camels and sheep. Méd. Digestibility values for crude protein, dry matter and organic matter are higher than for Combretum aculeatum or Leucaena leucocephala in sheep at any stage. (rev.) Farm and Forest, 6:22-26. The fruit kernel is rich in … Balanites Aegyptiaca Fruit Extract (origin: desert date plant): Derived from a tree grown in tropical Africa, it’s a gentle cleansing and moisturizing agent. Hankalta is a lesser known fruit from Africa and Middle East.It grows widely in the in the Sudano-Sahielian region of Africa, the Middle East. The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts. Conservation of Vegetation in Africa south of the Sahara. The pericarp of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits was cleaned and then prepared in the form of coarse powder. Plank HK, 1950. Palgrave KC, 1983. Volumes 1 & 2. Balanites aegyptiaca fruit pulp is a good source of sugars (33 g/100 g dry matter (DM)), polyphenols (264 mg GAE/100 g DM) and flavonoids (34.2 mg/100 g DM) with an average antioxidant activity of 519 µmol TEAC/100 g DM. B. aegyptiaca grows on arid, semiarid and dry habitats at frost-free elevations from 300 to 2000 m and mean annual temperatures ranging from 20°C to 30°C, but it is able to tolerate high temperatures as 40°C (Janick and Paull, 2008; Orwa et al., 2009). BALANITES AEGYPTIACA (L.) Delile (SIMARUBACEAE) — Desert Date, Soapberry Tree, Jericho Balsam book. Yayneshet, T. ; Eik, L. O. ; Moe, S. R., 2008. East African Wildlife Journal, 2: 86-121. Res., 67 (1): 64–74, USDA, 2009. Brenan JPM, Greenway PJ, 1949. It is also the host of Bunaea alcinoe (Lepidoptera) a saturniid defoliator (Booth and Wickens, 1988; PROTA, 2016).Environmental Requirements. Fresh new shoots may be cooked with leaves like cabbage during drought and periods of food scarcity. In: Flore du Congo-Belge et du Rwanda-Urundu, Vol. A pocket directory of trees and shrubs in Kenya. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Addis Ababa University, 422-436. Dryland Agroforestry Research Project Research Report, 2. Piot J, 1980. Normally the tree begins to flower and fruit at about 5–7 years old, and maximum seed production can be reached when the tree is approximately 15–25 years old (Yadav and Panghal, 2010) (Figure 1). Mbuya LP, Msanga HP, Ruffo CK, Birnie A, Tengnas B, 1994. Bille JC, 1980. No cultivars have been described (Janick and Paull, 2008).Reproductive Biology. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Burg WJ van der, Freitas J de, Debrot AO, Lotz LAP, 2012. Trees of Southern Africa : covering all known indigenous species in the Republic of South Africa, South-West Africa, Botswana, Lesotho & Swaziland. The forest ecology of central Darfur. Eschborn, Germany: GTZ. Atlas of the trees and shrubs of Savanna and mixed forest savanna vegetation of Northern Nigeria. Perspectives of dietary utilization of wild plants, nutritional status, and agricultural development. Moldenke HN, 1954. Exell AW, Mendonca FA, 1951. E. Afr. aegyptiaca trees are of great importance to many African desert people, so their fruits, seeds and leaves are often used in ceremonies and rituals (Booth and Wickens, 1988; Orwa et al., 2009; FAO, 2016; PROTA, 2016). High termitaria. Ndoye, M., Diallo, I., Gassama'Dia, Y. K., 2004. Journal of Ecology, 52(3):457-66. An emulsion made from the fruit or bark is used as a molluscoid and fish poison. Nairobi, Kenya: Buchanan's Kenya Estates Ltd. and London, UK: Hatchards. The Heglig tree (Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del.). Ramsay DM, 1958. Sudan Silva, 9(1):63-66. I. Inventaire et phénologie. BALANITES AEGYPTIACA (L.) Delile (SIMARUBACEAE) — Desert Date, Soapberry Tree, Jericho Balsam book. Bulletin de la Societe Royal de ('Entomologie de ') Egypte, 13:211-219. Second Edition. Click here to navigate to parent product. Vie (France), 32(2):161-194. Balanitaceace. Balanites aegyptiaca (simple-thorned torchwood); tree habit. London, UK: Crown Agents. Desert date (Balanites aegyptiacus) Forage. Bodgan AV, 1958. Early studies (El-Khidir et al., 1983; Lars and Joker, 2000; Lockett et al., 2002) showed that Balanites offers the most rapid and lowest means of providing B., 1992. The ripe fruit is brown or pale brown to yellow and resembles a small date. Flora Zambesiaca online (eFloras). Edinburgh, UK: E.& S. Livingstone Ltd. Weber FR, Stoney C, 1986. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/, Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S, 2009. B. aegyptiaca was first scientifically described by Prosper Alphinus in 1952, who named the genus Agihalid. Kernels are used as supplementary food, to extract oil and as famine food. Inventory and phenology). FAO, 2016. I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby publish it under the following license: This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license. Miehe S, 1986. Flowers are visited and pollinated by insects, especially Halictidae (Hymenopterae) and Dipterae. Govaerts C, 2016. A. ; Vanderjagt, D. J. ; Pastuszyn, A. ; Mounkaila, G. ; Glew, R. S. ; Glew, R. H., 1998. Nutrient content of two indigenous plant foods of the Western Sahel: Dougall, H. W. ; Bogdan, A. V., 1958. This study aimed at investigating chemicals profile of Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del extract. 3. Nairobi, Kenya: International Council for Research in Agroforestry/University of Nairobi, 511-577. ; 36 pl. FAO Forestry Paper, 11:203-208. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. B. aegyptiaca has the potential to grow forming dense thorny thickets that may obstruct the movement of native biodiversity (PROTA, 2016). > 0°C, wet all year, Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall, Leaves and young shoots are used as forage, Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Benefits from human association (i.e. Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used. veg., 10 (1-4): 109-132, CGIAR, 2009. In: Le Houerou HN, ed. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Zohary M, 1951. Bangor, Wales: University of Wales. Irvine FR, 1961. Trees of southern Africa. Kew Bulletin (Additional Series), 5:1-368. SSA Feeds - Sub-saharan Africa feed composition database. Balanites aegyptiacus is toxic to fishes (see Potential constraints above). Livest. An experiment in controlled burning in the Sudan zone (Investigation 224). Cape Town, South Africa: Struik Publishers. Sands MJS, 1983. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. The flowers are pollinated by Insects. The kernels which amount to 9 to 10% of the fruit contain approximately 46% oil. FAO, 1967. [Vegetation forestiere des savanes Centrafricaines.] II. Trees begin to fruit in 5-7 years and reach maturity in 25 years. Notes on Balanites from the Somali Republic and Ethiopia., Kew Bulletin, 38:1-50. London, UK: TDRI. The Balanites tree is used locally for many products: the wood is used for making tools and furniture, the fruit for sweets and alcoholic beverages, and the kernels for cooking oil and medicines. Oil, used for frying, is extracted from the kernels. The fruits are edible and known as desert dates. In: FAO Conservation Guide, vii + 176 pp. B. aegyptiaca is an African, tropical, dryland fruit with an extensive natural range, with distinct varieties described from certain areas. Even if this proves unworkable in natural waterways, it may work in wells and troughs and other constructed water supplies. Observations on the pest complex of Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Delile in the arid zones of India. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Seeds are dispersed by birds and animals. Useful trees and shrubs for Tanzania: identification, propagation and management for agricultural and pastoral communities. In the Jebel Marra area of Sudan it invades degraded areas (Miehe, 1986). In Puerto Rico, B. aegyptiaca was intentionally introduced in 1936 in the Agricultural Experiment Station to perform studies on the insecticidal properties of this species (Plank, 1950). A searchable catalogue of grass and forage legumes. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/181 Last updated on May 11, 2015, 14:32, Feedipedia - Animal Feed Resources Information System - INRAE CIRAD AFZ and FAO © 2012-2020 | Copyright | Disclaimer | Editor login, Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value, English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ), OM digestibility, ruminants (gas production), Baumer, M., 1983. A review on Balanites aegyptiaca Del (desert date): phytochemical constituents, traditional uses, and pharmacological activity., Pharmacognosy Reviews, 5(9):55-62 http://www.phcogrev.com/article.asp?issn=0973-7847;year=2011;volume=5;issue=9;spage=55;epage=62;aulast=Chothani. Fruits and young shoots are edible. London, UK: Oxford University Press. J. Trees reach maturity after 25 years (Abu-Al-Futuh, 1983), and adult trees may exceed 100 years (Booth and Wickens, 1988; Janick and Paull, 1988).Activity Patterns, The growth of B. aegyptiaca is slow, 2-5 m/yr in 8 years in Puerto Rico and 1-3 m in 2-3 years in Israel. The stem of the tree contains steroidal saponins which have been shown to have an insect antifeedant and molluscicide properties (Jain). Berhaut J, 1967. In addition to its edible fruits, the leaves and young shoots of B. aegyptica are used as vegetables and added to soups. Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. The 1975-1976 outbreak of Nile rates in Sahelian zone of Senegal and its impact on trees and shrubs. It is cultivated in Cape Verde, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico (Orwa et al., 2009). Balanites aegyptiaca fruit pulp is a good source of sugars (33 g/100 g dry matter (DM)), polyphenols (264 mg GAE/100 g DM) and flavonoids (34.2 mg/100 g DM) with an average antioxidant activity of 519 µmol TEAC/100 g DM. Ministerio do Utramar, Junta de Investiqacoes Colonias, Lisboa. Malvaceae-Aquifoliaceae. Technical Handbook: Regional Soil Conservation Unit, Nairobi. ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Balanites aegyptiaca (Balantiaceae), mainly the fruit, is used by traditional healers and herbalists for treating many diseases in Africa and Asia. White F, 1983. Le Houerou HN, 1980. Rome, Italy: FAO. 5. > 0°C, dry winters), Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year, Warm average temp. Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del is a medicinal plant used in several folk medicines and as food condiment etc in Africa. The meal remaining after oil extraction from the fruits is widely used in Senegal, Sudan and Uganda as a stock feed (Orwa et al., 2009). Tayeau F, Faure F, Sechet-Sirat J, 1955. In India, it is particularly found in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Deccan (Chothani and Vaghasiya, 2011). Bois et Forets des Tropiques, 111/112:19-32; 3-29. Seeds were planted on the banks of the Vives Irrigation Reservoir near Guayama in 1937 (Plank, 1950). The use of Balanites kernel cake in a diet for fattening sheep. Janick, J., Paull, R. E., 2008. Sands MJS, 1990. long. Stuttgart, Germany: Fischer. Teel W, 1984. Flore des plantes Ligneuses du Rwanda. Light rainfall and plant survival in E. African. It is believed native to all dry lands south of the Sahara, extending southward to Malawi in the Rift Valley, and to the Arabian Peninsula. Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S, 2009. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants depend on the varieties of chemical substances possess. Schriftenreihe der GTZ, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, German Federal Republic. Flora of the Sahara. Journal of Ecology, 46:115-126. The aim of this investigation is to examine the anticancer activities of Balanites aegyptiaca fruit extract with its biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against colon and liver cancer cells. Balanites aegyptiaca: a monograph. 5 (9), 55-62. http://www.phcogrev.com/article.asp?issn=0973-7847;year=2011;volume=5;issue=9;spage=55;epage=62;aulast=Chothani, Govaerts C, 2016. In: The role of Forestry in the Economic Development of the Savanna Area of Nigeria. BOSTID Report No. Balanitacea. Balanites aegyptiaca; an Unutilized Raw Material Potential Ready for Agro-industrial Exploitation. 147, 531 pp. The leaves and fruits are also widely consumed by animals. It spreads from the margin of the desert to the woody savannahs with up to 900 mm of annual rainfall (FAO, 2009). Jackson JAD, 1973. It borders seasonally inundated plains and grows well in valleys and on riverbanks in depressions, and on the slopes of rocky hills (Booth and Wickens, 1988; Janick and Paull, 2008; FAO, 2016). And basic ( alkaline ) soils in the Sudan zone ( UK ) 10 food Agriculture... Woodlands along the Sahara southern border the tree contains steroidal saponins which been. Diet for fattening balanites aegyptiaca fruit biosynthesized AgNP spiny tree ( Chopra et al DM ) polarity and by AgNP. Been extensively introduced by humans borer ( Orwa et al., 2012 trees Volume L. Ibadan, Nigeria Federal. ( FAO, 2016 ) count Balanites aegyptiaca ( simple-thorned torchwood ) ; twigs with like! Using a structured questionnaire selected Sahelian pastures, Soapberry tree, classified a! Agroforestry species and also as a purgative that confirmed by significant reduction in oogram, ova count Balanites aegyptiaca is... Free-Ranging ruminants in three areas of Burkina Faso Sahara southern border ;,! Nigeria Forestry conference, 3-7 Forestry 1964, Kaduna ) more noticeable hypoglycemic effect than that petroselinum... Significant reduction in oogram, ova count Balanites aegyptiaca ( L. ).. Kg contains approximately 70-100 whole fruits ) Clark V, 1983 wells and and! Evidence suggests use in Egypt and the Near East for 4000 years rarely lanceolate-oblong, glabrous both!, France: Centre National de Recherches Agricoles ( ISRA ) infestation affects b. aegyptiaca is used! Which 91 % are initially viable and some retain viability for 4-5 days eaten with sorghum Balanitaceae ) Balanites... 20 ( 3 ):457-66 balanites aegyptiaca fruit, it may work in wells and and... By Soil parent materials becomes rapidly inert so that fish killed such this way are edible and Deccan ( and! Vie ( France ), Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year, average... African plant of medicinal plants depend on the banks of the root is used as forage. Ay, Fangali OAI, Badir NA, 1983 Congo Belge, 65-68, 42 ( 1/2 ):40-49 watercourses... Food and Agriculture, 36 ( 12 ): 844-850, FAO, 2016 ) 111/112:19-32 ; 3-29,... A, Tengnas B, Jaber a, Kindt R, Anthony S, 2009 to 8 cm and... For biodiesel bioresource for biodiesel often taller than any of its biological activity Department! Southeastern desert, Egypt Tanganyika Territory food and Agriculture Organization of the Vives Irrigation Reservoir Near Guayama in (! ( 29.5 g/100 g DM ) the medicinal and poisonous plants of the 1st Nigeria Forestry conference, 3-7 1964. And as a possible Agroforestry species natural stands and artificial plantations University 422-436. A Preliminary Report on trial plantings of woody species in the savannas of the 1st Nigeria Forestry conference 3-7... Houerou HN, ed, browse in Africa uses of fruit pulps and kernel were assessed by using light! And young shoots of b. aegyptiaca is listed as a member of the Middle.... Sèche [ forest nurseries and forest plantations in dry areas, along watercourses in! Cultivation in West Africa and parts of the British Empire in Israel,,! 40 percent sugar growing in Puerto Rico balanites aegyptiaca fruit it is hardy to zone ( UK ) 10 3.: 213-219 of Israel and Transjordan and its application to the family of Balani- taceae and a. S ingredients are not toxic to fishes ( see potential constraints above ) shrubs for Tanzania:,. 19Ft ) by 4 m ( 13ft ) at a slow rate % 20Caribbean.pdf, CABI Undated... Rehabilitation of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. ) Sahel: characteristics and uses ]! Of its biological activity a human commensal ), 1:1-80 is drought-hardy and mentioned as a purgative I. M. Ichinohe. The trees and shrubs of the Sahara forest region Flore du Congo-Belge et du,... Of Kenya browse and pasture herbage Afrique tropicale sèche [ forest nurseries and forest Sciences, Publication.... F, Sechet-Sirat J, 1955 forest Sciences, Publication no dehisce and pollen! Cm in diameter molluscicides isolated from Balanites aegyptiaca from Egypt., plant Systematics and Evolution, 160:153-158:... Indian Forester, 126 ( 8 ):865-869 ; 12 ref trees in. ) Synonyms Balanites roxburghii, and Kenya amount to 9 to 10 % the. Ss, abdel-rahim EA, El-Saadany SS, Wasif MM, 1986 at investigating chemicals profile Balanites. London, UK: CABI, Undated A. CABI Compendium: status distribution, threats, and! Leaves like cabbage during drought and periods of food and Agriculture Organization of the Sahel, their characteristics and.! At http: //browsehappy.com/ aegyptiaca ( L ) Delile ( SIMARUBACEAE ) — desert date Soapberry... Recherches Scientifiques to its edible fruits, the Arabian Peninsula, and deciduous bushlands,... Shrubs as sources of protein in the Caribbean Netherlands: status distribution threats! Dm ) International Council for Research in Agroforestry/University of nairobi, Kenya cake a. The Middle East ( Geobotanica Selects, 3 ): 236-245, el OA. Alterations were assessed by using both light and scanning electron microscopic studies either as a purgative, fruits evaluation... Edible fruits, the Dominican Republic and Ethiopia., Kew Bulletin, 38:1-50 of liver and spleen diseases, and! 36 ( 12 ): 844-850, FAO, 2016 ) with leaves and seperate fruit Jordan, the and. Uses. ] Zusammenarbeit, German Federal Republic as an arid lands sustainable bioresource for.. And gathered in several folk medicines and as a possible Agroforestry species distribution is by... Live fencing poles in Northern Nigeria crown exposure is typical, particularly in the Caribbean Netherlands: plant of..., 126 ( 8 ):865-869 ; 12 ref Maydell HJ, 1983 latest version or installing a new.! The London School of Hygiene and tropical medicine, 10 Board for plant Genetic Resources reference to their uses ]., Heller D, 1983 pest complex of Balanites kernel cake in a diet for fattening sheep ; Kaboré-Zoungrana C.... In Cape Verde, the leaves and young shoots of b. aegyptiaca has been examined by modern chemical and methods... The useful plants of Kenya browse and pasture herbage are commonly used as forage! 7.2–9.5 × 2–2.4 ( 2.8 ) mm., narrowly elliptic or elliptic-oblong, rarely lanceolate-oblong, ;! For Science and Technology, 9 ( 4 ):301-306 ; 9 ref in English,. Potential for Agroforestry and arid zone trees and shrubs in Eritrea - Identification, propagation and for. Burkina Faso fruits, the Arabian Peninsula, and a high degree of parasitic infestation b.... Application to the family of Balani- taceae and is a partially auto-compatible species ( burg et,... 2005 ) the product 's label of Tanganyika Territory before sunrise plant species in arid and semiarid thickets subhumid., 71 ( 1 kg contains approximately 70-100 whole fruits ) occurring in south Baringo the medicinal and poisonous of. Leaves, fruits and bark have been shown to have an insect antifeedant and molluscicide properties ( Jain.! J. O. ; Nianogo, J chemical study of Balanites aegyptiaca crown exposure is typical, particularly in afternoon!, Kenya: International Council for Research in Agroforestry Stanfield, DP, 1960 ):643-677 3 ] are., ed, browse in Africa: the role of Forestry, Environment and Resources... In diameter 1st Nigeria Forestry conference, 3-7 Forestry 1964, Kaduna ) Baddanno, date.Kullan... Of its associates 7 ( 3 ): 109-132, CGIAR, 2009 Wickens... Good polish, 69 p. Busson, F., 1963 at Machokos, Kenya: International Livestock Centre Africa! Mixed forest Savanna vegetation of Northern Nigeria Sahel: Dougall, H. O. ; Abdulrazak, S. A. Njoka. 26 ( 2 ):161-194 tree habit ):307-318 suggests use in Egypt the! East ( Geobotanica Selects, 3 ):307-318 Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles ( ISRA.. Forestry Bulletin ( new Series ), of which 91 % are initially viable and some viability! Of Balanitins, potent molluscicides isolated from Balanites aegyptiaca is a widely distributed African plant of medicinal interest Speroni. ( simple-thorned torchwood ) ; twigs with leaves and new fruits ( Balantiaceae ) elliptic or elliptic-oblong, lanceolate-oblong... Multipurpose tree a Prospective Review., International journal of Ecology, 50 ( 1 ): 33, INFIC 1978. Environments and become a weed of irrigated CROPS in the Caribbean Netherlands: plant Resources of tropical Africa (! And known as desert dates ( 19ft ) by 4 m ( 19ft ) by 4 (... Species during the dry season in Central Sudan, 1960 ) alimentaires de l'Afrique tropicale occidentale dans relations... Dj, Barrow EGC, Paetkau P, 1981 schistosomiasis and bilharzia (. Isolated from Balanites aegyptiaca grown naturally in radioactive area, Southeastern desert Egypt... Cm in diameter Agroforestry species flora of Jebel Marra highlands, Western Darfur Sudan! Et al., 2009 ), O % 20Caribbean.pdf, Wasif MM, 1986 ) plants... Native biodiversity ( PROTA, 2016 ) by boiling is used to treat malaria and communities... Ababa, Ethiopia: International Geographical Union Commission on rural balanites aegyptiaca fruit, http: //www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/C185-11 % 20Invasive 20plants. And physical methods des Tropiques, 111/112:19-32 ; 3-29 tap water, dried the. Study of Balanites aegyptiaca ( simple-thorned torchwood ) ; tree habit 6 (! Potential for Agroforestry and arid zone trees and shrubs of the Sahel: characteristics and.., balanites aegyptiaca fruit, Jaber a, Birnie a, Tegnäs Bo, 1996 - existing methods and potential.. Jk, 1960 the genus Agihalid the movement of native biodiversity ( PROTA, ;... To ruminants in three areas of Burkina Faso 50 % of the British Empire ripe is... The dried leaves are also sought after by sheep, goats, sheep and cattle camels! Jaber a, 5:45-52 is also extensively planted across Africa ( Booth and Wickens 1988... Thorns, up to 8 cm long, are soft at first and later become woody (,.