What Is Differentiated Instruction, Examples of Strategies. Across the literature, experts (Anderson, 2007; Rock, Gregg, Ellis, & Gable, 2008; Tomlinson, 2000) suggest these guiding principles to support differentiated classroom practices: What we don’t learn is how to apply them to maximize the learning experience of our students. Instruction calibrated to meet the unique pace of various students is known as individualized learning. Thus, learning is a change in knowledge which is stored in memory, and not just a change in behavior. As the educational system transitioned to grading schools, it was assumed that children of the same age learned similarly. About Differentiated Instruction In differentiated instruction, teachers understand the different needs of students, such as by evaluating rate of learning, language proficiency, literacy and more. Choosing a variety of instructional methods is the key to applying the DI method. Differentiated instruction accommodates the diverse learning needs of the students by varying the methods and materials used to teach each concept. Reading development has fascinated educators, parents and researchers for decades. While research into learning styles is mixed, there are clear and measurable benefits to adapting your teaching methods to your students’ needs. DI is a type of instruction that is inclusive of different types of learners.1,2,3 DI addresses the varying learning styles of students within the classroom.1,2,3 Each student has different learning … © Stuart T. Haines 2005-2020. endobj Differentiated Instruction is a teaching emphasis intended to meet the varied learning needs of all students. Differentiated instruction is often compared to the learning styles theory, which posits that all students respond best to one of four learning methods. Differentiated instruction integrates knowledge about constructivist learning theory, learning styles, and brain development with empirical research on influencing factors of learner readiness, interest, and intelligence preferences toward students’ motivation, engagement, and academic growth within schools (Tomlinson & Allan, 2000). McBride (2004) stated that "Differentiated instruction is vital to effecting positive change in student performance, because the one-strategy-fits-all approach doesn't work in a real classroom" (p. 39). While he was interested specifically in intelligence, there are many ways his research can be useful to teachers. Instead of using a one-size-fits-all approach, a teacher uses a variety of methods to teach. /��;����w�.>/�E����C$T��Ѣŵa��ǒƷ�]�^�y��O�(�B/�2�u�[c�ȝ�̄خg��8g��ʾ��)���ˎ���Rz�LX^̊ _~y��7���̦i{I�#DB�Gṏ�0E���>j(�^�;]���~���}���Q{v� ���ME(���5�W2C����w4�*�c�OPk�uo��z$(ߪ>B�4s.�z'�i#��k���A�����Su�H�آ�����j. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material is prohibited. <>>> stream While he was interested specifically in intelligence, there are many ways his research can be useful to teachers. learning how to write. By negotiating with students, teachers can create motivating assignments that meet students’ diverse needs and varied interests. With the expansion of course delivery to online classrooms, the application of DI methods to online learners is also important. Dr John Munro is Head of Studies in Exceptional Learning and Gifted in the Graduate School of Education at the University of Melbourne. Learning Theories are frameworks that are extensively used by Instructional Designers to meet the requirements of the target audience and the situation. <> 5 Stages of Literacy Development in Children. Each of the theories promotes personalization of education by connecting the student's total life to the learning in the classroom. By learning how to use Multiple Intelligences as a base for differentiated instruction, educators can inspire a love of learning that lasts a lifetime. Differentiated instruction does not mean matching teaching styles with learning styles as suggested by the learning styles theory. Robert Mills Gagné was an American educational psychologist who, … the presentation of a grounded learning theory to support the move to differentiated instruction. Compared with the general student population, students with mild or severe learning disabilities received more benefits from differentiated and intensive support, especially when the differentiation was delivered in small groups or with targeted instruction (McQuarrie, McRae, & Stack-Cutler, 2008). Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development; 1999 [cited on 2016 Mar 5]. Thus, some theories are oriented more toward basic learning and others toward applied learning and, within that, in different content areas; some stress the role of development, others are strongly linked with instruction; and some emphasize motivation. When I was teaching about the area and volume of geometric figures, Teon was learning the difference between 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional shapes. But the teaching approach varies depending on how students prefer to learn. I brought this question up for discussion in one of my Masters of Teaching classes and did not feel the response was adequate enough for me to apply it in a classroom set . Following on from this, attention is focused on the factors that intensify a shift in instructional practice. Information on the theory and research behind differentiated instruction and its intersection with Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is examined. Benefits of Differentiated Learning for Students They also contend that learning involves the formation of associations between stimuli and responses. The ultimate goal is to provide a learning environment that will maximize the potential for student success. It requires a departure from traditional methods of teaching and the belief that learners vary according … In order to deliver content well, the content must be relevant to the students. However, there is no one-size-fits-all model for differentiated instruction; it looks different depending on the prior knowledge, interests, and abilities students bring to a learning situation. Behavioural learning theories view learning as change in rate/frequency of occurrence, or form of behaviour or response which occurs primarily as a function of environmental factors (Chunk, 2012). Brain research indicates that the years up to age 10 are the prime time for learning. Thus, teachers in differentiated classrooms accept and act on the premise that they must be ready to engage students in instruction through different approaches to learning, by appealing to a range of interests, and by using varied rates of instruction along with varied degrees of complexity and differing support systems. Once they understand the strengths and weaknesses of each Learning Theory, they can optimise their use. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of the material published on the Educational Theory and Practice Blog without express and written permission from this blog’s owner is strictly prohibited. Differentiated Learning and Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence: Connecting Theory and Instruction to Encourage Movement in the Elementary Classroom ; Author: Schnarr, Kayla. For example, differen - tiation might be necessary for students with language impairments or who are English language learners, students with learning disabilities or intellectual disabilities, or students who are gifted. Information on the theory and research behind differentiated instruction and its intersection with Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is examined. While we know that the human brain is wired for language acquisition, the reading and writing of an invented language – as all … A chief objective of differentiated instruction is to take full advantage of every student’s ability to learn (Tomlinson, 2001a, 2001c, 2004c, 2005). By 1919, there were upwards of 190,000 one room schoolhouses operating in the United States. The Impact of Culture on Student-Teacher Relations... Office Hours: A Hidden Learning Experience, Image from:  https://loorducation.wordpress.com/edu-605-differentiated-instruction/. After the delivery of content, instructors may use DI to allow students the option of showing mastery of the content based on their learning style. [Internet]. Differentiated instruction is often compared to the learning styles theory, which posits that all students respond best to one of four learning methods. The Multiple Intelligence Theory allows students to use the same exact content, at the same exact time, in the same exact room, all in different ways in the differentiated instruction activity Differentiated Instruction - Differentiated instruction is a way to reach students with different learning styles, different abilities to absorb information and different ways of expressing what they have learned. <> Even though today there are fewer than 400, the wide range of abilities that were found in these schools do exist in our standard classrooms today. However, that is not to say that they are synonymous. •Tomlinson (2000) maintains that differentiation is not just an instructional strategy, nor is it a recipe for teaching, rather it is an innovative way of thinking about teaching and learning. Students enrolled in online courses have the same varied needs, experiences, intelligences, and learning styles as those enrolled in courses held in traditional classrooms. differentiated instruction, pro-viding a different learning experience to address particular students’ needs. Learning theories develop hypotheses that describe how this process takes place. As with any method of instruction, there are pros and cons of DI. Multiple Intelligences are the work of Howard Gardner and are not new to education. What is an example of physical development? In this setting, one teacher was responsible for educating students in a wide range of grades and ability levels. DI is a type of instruction that is inclusive of different types of learners. E-Learning design and instructional practice… Differentiated Instruction: Adapting the Learning Environment for Students. instruction with increased precision and effectiveness. Simple theme. Currently, too many students are not learning successfully in our schools—for a whole variety of reasons. Which term refers to children learning through observation? Finally, the differentiated instruction model is presented as a response to addressing learner variance. When I was teaching how to write an essay on natural disasters, my co-teacher was having them create a graphic Email . Learning Theories About Reading Development. Once they understand the strengths and weaknesses of each Learning Theory, they can optimise their use. Powered by. Abstract. Behavioral learning theory is equated with teacher- centered instructional approaches in which teachers serve as dispensers of information and struc - ture the learning environment to help students progress from simple to more complex skills. Differentiated Instruction: An Introduction > Module 4 > Reading: Key Elements of Differentiated Instruction _____ Key Elements of Differentiated Instruction Differentiated instruction is based on modification of four elements: content, process, product, and affect/learning environment. The scientific study of learning started in earnest at the dawn of the 20th Thus, teachers in differentiated classrooms accept and act on the premise that they must be ready to engage students in instruction through different approaches to learning, by appealing to a range of interests, and by using varied rates of instruction along with varied degrees of complexity and differing support systems. Related . Differentiated instruction is becoming critical in higher education due to student diversity and background knowledge. Selected Proceedings of the Fall AAC Conference. Engagement, Motivation, and Differentiation are fueled by our abilit… The impact of learning styles on student grouping for collaborative learning: A case study, Influence of Personality Types on Learning Preferences, Knowledge Dimensions: Factual, Conceptual, Procedural, and Metacognitive, Pharmacists Education: B.S.Pharm to Pharm.D. All students have access to the curriculum in a variety of ways. Tomlinson, C.A. vicarious learning. We learn that they are different ways or strengths that people have to help them learn best. Nonetheless, Although there are multiple theories of learning, there are three principle foundations that influence most instructional design models today. Differentiated instruction is a cyclical process of finding out about the learner and responding by differentiating. Findings in recent research studies have proved the lack of credible evidence for the utility of the learning styles theory. For example, use of visual aids and textbooks for visual learners and incorporation of note taking for the tactile learners. Differentiated Instruction focuses on whom we teach, where we teach, and how we teach. Carol Ann Tomlinson is a leader in the area of differentiated learning and professor of educational leadership, foundations, and policy at the University of Virginia. The potential for meaningful learning that is learner-centered may exist when diversity is acknowledged, and the needs of diverse learners are accommodated (American Psychological Association Work Group, 1997; Jones and McLean, 2012). As we continue to learn more about the learner, we respond by differentiating . Differentiated instruction requires use of a combination of materials (Gardner, 1993; Tomlinson, 2001). 1 0 obj Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to the blog essay's author(s) and the Educational Theory and Practice Blog with appropriate and specific direction to the original content. Learning Theories are frameworks that are extensively used by Instructional Designers to meet the requirements of the target audience and the situation. (2007).Differentiation & Understanding by Design: Keys to Unlocking Learning. Learning theory informs the application of instructional design through models. This makes the whole learning experience more effective. While research into learning styles is mixed, there are clear and measurable benefits to adapting your teaching methods to your students’ needs. Differentiated instruction is becoming critical in higher education due to student diversity and background knowledge. DI requires a great deal of planning. Its primary goal is ensuring that teachers focus on processes and procedures that ensure effective learning for varied individuals. The teacher proactively plans differentiation to address a variety of learning needs—as opposed to adjusting a lesson plan when it becomes clear that it’s not working for some students. Gagné’s Conditions of Learning. Benefits of Differentiated Learning for Students. For this benchmark, revise the UbD presentation from Topic 4 based on your readings on interdisciplinary collaboration this week. Differentiated instruction does not mean matching teaching styles with learning styles as suggested by the learning styles theory. SEARCH PROCEDURE It’s a step in the direction away from the “one-size-fits-all” approach to teaching. 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