The entrenched hatred of the various sides and their seeming determination to sacrifice all for their religious beliefs. This allowed Spinola to move troops and supplies by road, rather than sea where the Dutch navy held the advantage and by 1618, the only part not controlled by Spain ran through the Electoral Palatinate. However, the rebels soon found the new French administration differed little from the old, turning the war into a three-sided contest between the Franco-Catalan elite, the rural peasantry, and the Spanish. deteriorating military position. The Bohemian Revolt (1618–1620) was an uprising of the Bohemian estates against the rule of the... Danish Intervention. Over the next eighteen months, Spanish and Catholic League forces won a series of victories; by November 1622, they controlled most of the Palatinate, apart from Frankenthal, held by a small English garrison under Sir Horace Vere. 1. Why did Soviet leaders decide to invade Afghanistan despite internal opposition? This was known as The Defenestration.  By the end of 1627, Wallenstein occupied Mecklenburg, Pomerania, and Jutland, and began making plans to construct a fleet capable of challenging Danish control of the Baltic. , Although some towns may have over-stated their losses to avoid taxes, individual records confirm serious declines; from 1620 to 1650, the population of Munich fell from 22,000 to 17,000, that of Augsburg from 48,000 to 21,000. The spark that set off the Thirty Years War came in 1618, when the Archbishop of Prague ordered a Protestant church destroyed. In May 1618, these factors combined to bring about the Bohemian Revolt. By convention it is said to have lasted from 1337 to 1453, but there had been periodic fighting since the 12th century.  Although the Franco-Spanish conflict continued until 1659 and Spain remained a global force for another two centuries, Westphalia allowed Louis XIV of France to complete the process of replacing her as the predominant European power. The Thirty Years’ War was a European continental war that took place from 1618-1648 (thirty years!). The Danes were comprehensively beaten at Lutter in August, and Mansfeld's army dissolved following his death in November.  The financial impact is less clear; while the war caused short-term economic dislocation, overall it accelerated existing changes in trading patterns. In addition, Lutherans could keep lands or property taken from the Catholic Church since the 1552 Peace of Passau. The Thirty Years' War (German: Dreißigjähriger Krieg, pronounced [ˈdʁaɪ̯sɪçˌjɛːʁɪɡɐ kʁiːk] ()) was a conflict fought in modern Germany and Central Europe from 1618 to 1648. During the Thirty Years’ War, many of the contending armies were mercenaries, many of whom could not collect their pay. To go a little deeper, the answer to your question is that while the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) started out in the way that you suggest, that is, as a religious conflict between Protestants and Roman Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire, it did not continue that way. , Elsewhere, persecution followed Imperial military success, expanding into Baden and the Palatinate following their reconquest by Tilly, then into the Rhineland. Although retaken in 1625, a second fleet established Dutch Brazil in 1630, which was then relinquished in 1654. If the Spartans intervened at that moment, they would be able to crush the Athenians, who were in a vulnerable situation, but when the Spartans called … Thanks to Xios, Alan Haskayne, Lachlan Lindenmayer, William Crabb, Derpvic, Seth Reeves and all my other Patrons.  In addition, rulers might share the same religion but have different economic and strategic objectives; for much of the war, the Papacy supported France against the Habsburgs. It also provided opportunities for external opponents of the Habsburgs, including the Ottoman Empire and Savoy. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. In 1625 King Christian IV of Denmark saw an opportunity to gain valuable territory in Germany to balance his earlier loss of Baltic provinces to Sweden.  Rumours now began circulating Wallenstein was preparing to switch sides, and in February 1634, Ferdinand issued orders for his arrest; on 25th, he was assassinated by one of his officers in Cheb. As no satisfactory agreement could be reached between the followers of Catholicism and Protestantism, a feeling of bitterness continued to persist between them which ultimately culminated in the Thirty Years’ War. 1618 - 1648. To recover his costs, Maximilian was allowed to annex Donauwörth, which under the principle of cuius regio, eius religio changed a formerly Lutheran town into a Catholic one. , A serious Swedish defeat at Nördlingen in September 1634 threatened their participation, leading France to intervene directly. The member states of the Holy Roman Empire were granted full sovereignty. , The strategic importance of the Palatinate and its proximity to the Spanish Road drew in external powers; in August 1620, the Spanish occupied the Lower Palatinate. , Negotiations with France and Sweden were conducted in conjunction with the Imperial Diet, and were multi-sided discussions involving many of the German states. Christian’s defeat and the Peace of Lübeck in 1629 finished Denmark as a European power, but Sweden’s Gustav II Adolf, having ended a four-year war with Poland, invaded Germany and won many German princes to his anti-Roman Catholic, anti-imperial cause. What began the war?  Many Protestants supported Ferdinand because they objected to deposing the legally elected king of Bohemia, and now opposed Frederick's removal on the same grounds. Soldiers devastated one area before moving on, leaving large tracts of land empty of people and changing the eco-system. Conflict between German Protestants and Catholics caused by the early 16th century Reformation was temporarily settled by the 1555 Peace of Augsburg. , Spanish chief minister Olivares correctly interpreted this as an invitation to open negotiations, and in return for an Anglo-Spanish alliance offered to restore Frederick to his Rhineland possessions. , While Emperors were elected, since 1440 this had been a Habsburg, the largest single landowner within the Empire; their lands included the Archduchy of Austria, the Kingdom of Bohemia, and the Kingdom of Hungary, with over eight million subjects. In some areas of Germany, it has been suggested that up to 60% of the population died. , However, once again Richelieu provided the requisite support; in the 1631 Treaty of Bärwalde, he provided funds for the Heilbronn League, a Swedish-led coalition of German Protestant states, including Saxony and Brandenburg. Attempts by Maximilian of Bavaria and John George of Saxony to broker a negotiated solution ended when Matthias died in March 1619, since it convinced many the Habsburgs were fatally damaged. 17th century Europe was a highly structured and socially conservative society, and their lack of enthusiasm was due to the implications of removing a legally elected ruler, regardless of religion. Ágnes Várkonyi: Age of the Reforms, Magyar Könyvklub publisher, 1999. sfn error: no target: CITEREFWilson1976 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFClodfelter2017 (. The Soviet-Afghan War lasted nine years: it was Russia’s longest war in a century that also included a civil war, two world wars, and a number of international conflicts. Bavarian general Johann von Werth declared his loyalty to the Emperor and refused to comply with the truce, forcing Maximilian to do the same. , By modern standards, the number of soldiers involved was relatively low; most battles were fought by opposing forces of around 13,000 to 20,000, the largest being Alte Veste in 1632, which featured a combined total of 70,000 - 85,000. The Russo-Polish Peace of Polyanov in 1634 ended Poland’s claim to the tsarist throne but freed Poland to resume hostilities against its Baltic archenemy, Sweden, which was now deeply embroiled in Germany. This effectively destabilised large areas of North and Central Germany and provided an opportunity for Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, who invaded the Empire in 1630. The Thirty Years' War & the Peace of Westphalia: ... we'll understand why the 30 Years' War was one of the most devastating conflicts of European history. In late August, Gustavus incurred heavy losses in an unsuccessful assault on the town, arguably the greatest blunder in his German campaign. , Ferdinand restarted peace talks in November, but his position worsened when Gallas' army disintegrated; the remnants retreated into Bohemia, where they were scattered by Torstenson at Jankau in March 1645. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. One may describe a feeling of sadness as being "blue" and cowardice as being "yellow," but did American revolutionaries refer to British soldiers as "redcoats?" 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