In fact, multiple causes i.e., social-religious-political- economic worked together to produce the rebellion. ….Stanley Wolpert . British, in India, introduced a new administrative system and laws, while replacing the age-old traditional administrative setup. Rise of Organized Movement Dr. R.C. The Revolt Of 1857. In addition, there were also two important Governor Generals of India whose policies accelerated the growing nationalism among the Indian people and resulted in the Great Uprising. Indian people began the uprising because they were cruelly exploited by the British colonialists. The military caps contained leather strip, which the orthodox sepoys did not like. Revolt of 1857 The commercial policy of the British was directed towards maximum profit. That kind of suspicion made the Indian army officers extremely unhappy. This battle is termed as the “patriotic national war of independence” by the Indians, whereas the British, REVOLT OF 1857 & THE INDIAN COUNCILS ACT, 1861 My dear friend At this conjuncture I believe that the reasons for the Revolt of 1857 is indeed many, the prime and the most important one being the religious sentiments being hurt. Lack of Societal Alternative The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company's army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 mi (64 km) northeast of Delhi (now Old Delhi). The periods of government of Lord Bentinck and Lord Dalhousie had also contributed to the mutiny as their reforms were aimed to change the social, economic and political lives of the Indian people. Its quest to conquer India under the workings of the title of the East India Company is what led to one of the greatest battles in the world history. The sepoys belonging to higher castes used to put Tilok on their foreheads as their religious marks. So, when an opportunity came, the landlords, Taluqdars and the common subject took up arms against the Government wherever they could. The unhappiness of the sepoys first surfaced in 1824 when the 47th Regiment at Barrackpur was ordered to go to Burma. The British also possessed almost unlimited supplies of modern artillery to quickly suppress the 1857 Revolt. This Revolt was initiated by the sepoys of the company, so it has been commonly termed as ‘Sepoy Mutiny’. It erupted on 10th July 1806 in Vellore, present-day Tamil Nadu, and lasted only for a day, but it was brutal and it was the first major mutiny by the Indian sepoys in the East India Company. The sepoys discovered a meaning behind the whole affair. This ‘Discrimination’ was a major underlying cause of the rebellion of 1857. CAUSES OF REVOLT Economic Causes. More was the exploitation, greater became the poverty. It drew its strength from several elements of discontent against British rule. What were the main causes of Revolt of 1857? There was discrimination not only in the lower level, it prevailed in every level of the economy. To the religious Hindu, crossing the sea meant loss of caste.The sepoys, therefore, refused to comply. The Revolt of 1857 covered the way for the future struggle for freedom in India. “Were reject none, neither theist, nor pantheist, monist, polytheist, agnostic, nor atheist, the only condition of being a disciple in modeling a character at once the broadcast and the most intense”, he declared. Finally, Vivekananda drew the attention of Indian people towards the values of Western ways of life. At last, Dalhousie wanted to finish them, too. As per some British historians, it was just a peasant sepoy mutiny. The revolt of 1857 witnessed in large parts of North and Central India was an armed rebellion triggered due to number of political and economic policies of British. Otherwise, there could be no good work in life. In the right time, they came forward to create discontent in the minds of their countrymen. They denied the use of the fat of caws or pigs only cartridge. The mutiny at Vellore (1806), at Barrackpore (1824), at Ferozpur (1842), mutiny of the 7th Bengal cavalry, mutiny of 22nd N.I. The Revolt of 1857 further widened the difference between the ruler and the ruled. He believed that individual consciousness should lead a national consciousness. The British wanted to destroy their religions through the greased cartridge. The Revolt of 1857, commonly called as the Sepoy Revolt, was the culmination of the manifold grievances that Indians had against the East India Company’s rule. Causes of Revolt of 1857 3. As a result, the Indian … Man had divinity in him. “Our religion is in the Kitchen. There were political, economic, social, religious and military causes of the revolt. The 1857 war of Independence was the culmination of various political, economic, social and military causes which burst forth in the from of the cartridge controversy, finally resulting in the Indian Sepoy Mutiny where a soldier named Mangal Pandey was the first to break rank. The Mutiny, Indies was unsuccessful due to Portuguese and Dutch control over the spice trade. It is true that it was India’s actual or official rebel against the prevailing British Raj it is also true that the revolt was not formed because of one single factor, many small but significant factors led to the Revolt of the 1857. In those days the higher caste Hindus believed that to cross the sea was to lose religion. When Dalhousie left in 1856, there were only 45 thousands English soldiers in India. The Revolt of 1857, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, are the different names for India’s First War of Independence against the British. Vivekananda wanted to break that system. The increasing activities of the Christian missionaries and the actual conversions made by them were taken as a proof of this fear. He wanted to open the Indian mind to external things. Revolt of 1857 – Causes . At many places, the British revenue system proved very hard for the common people. However, in sum total the ‘organizational’ factor was the principal cause of the deep British-Indian divide which led to the events which erupted like a volcano in 1857. By that time, the secret agents of Rani Lakshmi Bai and Nana Saheb were busy among the angry sepoys to foment trouble. He did not proceed, but his intention was known. The orthodox thought that by the rapid spread of English education, the fabrics of the traditional Indian society should break. Indians as a nation suffered from inferiority complex. To use it by mouth was to taste the objectionable fat. PROF. ANSHUMAN SINGH By teaching him his worth Vivekananda established him as a nobler individual. Such were, in essence the contents of Vivekananda’s message. The poverty of the people gradually increased. 4. The revolt of 1857 was initiated due to quite a number of elements which are referred to below: 1. For which he started to use doctrine of lapse. In that year there were a series of uprising which were known by British historians as ‘the Indian mutiny’ and by Indian historians as ‘The War of Independence’ these different names for the same event show how history can be a matter of interpretation. To the orthodox, he condemned in strong terms. That blind belief made the sepoys defiant and disloyal. SUBMITED TO The Sepoy mutiny of 1857, popularly known as the Revolt of 1857 was the first major attempt at overthrow of the British rule from India led by disgruntled sepoys or army jawans and later joined by various sections of the society like princes, zamindars, peasants, etc. Following are the Political causes of failure of 1857 mutiny. Their number, thus; grew considerably. The regiment was disbanded and those who led the opposition were hanged. All these factors create feelings of discontent among India. During the period between 1820 and 1856 East India Company acting on the behalf of the British government had been actively maintaining a number of reforms and policies in India. Dr S.N. 1. So they wanted freedom from the British rule. Given below are the chief causes of the 1857 War of Independence : The British conquest of India was followed by Western influences on the Indian society. Also, the import of British Machine to India, the exclusion of Indian sepoys at higher ranks in the military, etc. Revolt of 1857 in India against the British Raj remains one of the most significant events in the colonial history of India. The mutiny of 1857 however, was different. However, recent researches have proved that the cartridge was not the only cause for this revolt. Under the doctrine of lapse, the British annexed any Indian state where the ruler did not have a male heir. Their aggression, at first took the, What Was The Causes Of The Revolt Of 1857, The Revolt of 1857-1858 that happened in India is known also as the Mutiny of Sepoy in Britain and as the First War of Indian Independence among the Indian population. They lived a miserable existence. Finally, there occurred an incident, which sparked of the revolt. Land settlements did not satisfy them. Thus, for the British the Revolt of 1857 was an important incident. Almost from the beginning of the British rule, the Christian missionaries tried to preach Christianity among the people. Thus he advocated the value of a wider understanding of different religions. One consequence of the mutiny was the establishment of direct British governance of India. Also Read: Causes of the Revolt of 1857. Political, social, economic, military and other factors contributed to the making of the Revolt of 1857. Political causes: The Doctrine of Lapse which was introduced by the British stated that any kingdom of India which did not have its natural heir the kingdom would pass on to the hands of the British. They became fearful regarding their religions. Because, as he believed, every man wanted some spiritual spark to conduct his own activities. It began with a mutiny of sepoys (who were the Indian soldiers of the Company’s army). Further more, he preached in favour of cosmopolitanism and Catholicism. TAMIL NADU NATIONAL LAW SCHOOL There were political, economic, social, religious and military causes of the Revolt. As many historians had described that the revolt of 1857 was an awakening and some of them have even stated it as the ‘First War of Independence’ of India. But beneath their imperial sway there was growing serious discontent, which the rulers could not know. Rani Lakhsmi Bai, the heroic queen of Jhansi, could not keep the kingdom of her dead husband of her adopted son. Disclaimer Dalhousie had even desire to drive out the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II from Delhi in order to extinguish the Mughal dynasty. Firstly, the British Generals and army officers did not know to behave well with the sepoys. To him, religion should not mean blind faith or absurd practices. Stated thal heirs adopted without the approval of the Compay would only inherit the private property of the owner and the territories would be seized by the Company. Causes of 1857 Revolt The issue of greased cartridges and military grievances has been over-emphasized, as the factor for the Revolt of 1857. What was the character (or nature) of the Revolt of 1857 (India)? The enemies of the English spread rumors that in order to destroy religion of the Hindus the British mixed the powder of the animal bones in the salt. The Indian public which does not like sudden changes was applied with the new laws and customs which were anathema to the … The events of 1857 were unique both in terms of historical precedence and in terms of the socio-political sphere as far as India was concerned. He wanted to make the Hindu modern. Nana Saheb, the adopted son of the dead Peshawa, lost his pension and privileges and become a relentless foe of the British. The most important cause of popular discontent was the British policy of economically exploiting India. In loading the rifle the sepoy before inserting the cartridge had to bite off its top. Nature of the Revolt of 1857 ‘Sepoy Mutiny’ to some British historians—“a wholly unpatriotic and selfish Sepoy Mutiny with no native leadership and no popular support”, said Sir John Seeley. This revolt is seen as the start to the struggle for freedom and the first major attack on the British rule; this led to many transformations, both physical and mental and many other events. Published: October 17, 2011 The successive Governor generals appointed by the crown and based at Calcutta expanded the domains of British India over the period of time up the time of Lord Dalhousie, whose conquests against Punjab and Burma pushed the frontiers of the British India against Afghanistan and Burma. Vellore Mutiny – The Vellore Mutiny took place even before the revolt of 1857(50 years before). In the post-Revolt period, to maintain supremacy in India, British followed the policy of communal disharmony. Interests of the peasantry, craftsmen and some of the Indian feudal lords were infringed. The, INDIAN FREEDOM STRUGGLE India’s traditional economy collapsed as a result of the British ‘investment’ policies and revenue administration. 1. These of the adopted sons of the dead rulers who lost their thrones or pensions became the sworn enemies of British. Thus British government passed Government of India Act 1858 on August 2, 1858, according to which the power that the company enjoyed was snatched and a direct rule was established. Rise of Indian Nationalism Believe it or not, it was the ‘Enfield Rifle’. The Causes of the War. He knew that superstitions had destroyed much of Hindu spiritually. They were unemployed. India as a region has known foreign invaders more frequently than any other region in world history. This was why Laxmibai's son who was adopted was denied the throne. John William Kaye, the historian of the Sepoy War, regarded Dalhousie’s encouragement of female education as one of the causes of the Mutiny. By bringing other charges also he wanted to destroy several other rulers. In those very places, the sepoys were placed in large number. The causes of the Great Revolt of 1857 and Sepoy Mutiny may be studied in the following heads: Political cause: Major political cause for the outbreak of the Revolt … By reminding them of their spiritual values, Vivekananda created in them a self confidence. The mysterious bread and the lotus moved from hand to hand as the symbol of revolution, carrying with them a call to rise. Shift from traders to Lords Higher philosophies were the monopoly of the learned. They knew that they were the backbone of the imperial strength. Since the greased cartridge contained the animal fat, as the name suggested, the fat came from all types of animals, cows and pigs included. The revolt of 1857 was formed due to several reasons like- the economical domination of foreigners, lost freedom of Indians etc. The British Government abolished the rights of the landlords at many places in northern India. For the first time, the English brought to India a new type of rifle known as the Enfield rifle. This hurt all sections of society. The following were some of his notable ideas: Firstly, he wanted to bring spiritually to the mind and the heart of the mass of people. Vivekananda taught many things to his countrymen. There was a clear lack of unity among the rebels and there was no common purpose among them during the revolt of 1857. That is to say, for each English soldier, there were five Indians sepoys. The revolt of 1857 - MCQs with answers - Part I 1.Which among the following was not an economic cause of the revolt of 1857? The physical and the metaphysical, the secular and the religious, were all parts of the same nature. D) increased pressure on agricultural land View Answer / Hide Answer In 1902, at the age of 39, Vivekananda died. Utilitarian saw the improvement in India through the maintaining good policies. During the administration of Dalhousie, nearly 20 thousand lands–holders of the Deccan lost their lands. The sever famines which devoured millions of people remained issues, that were never addressed. Savarkar called 1857 revolt as the First War of Indian Independence. It was far more than a mutiny…. The rumor spread that the British rule were destined to last for a hundred years only , and as such , it should end in 1857. The whites also started interfering in the religious and cultural affairs of Indians and … Their economic misfortune made them the enemies of the new rulers. From secluded and higher sphere, he wanted to bring spiritual doctrines to the day-to- day life of the ordinary man. The British imperialism over India led to the British imperialism over China. To the common man, the principles of the Bhagvat Gita or any such great work remained ever unknown. This came as a shock for the British and as an inspiration for the Indians. Administrative causes of the revolt of 1857 Resentment against a new administrative system. Although it is exaggeration, it laid the seeds for Indian nationalism. When the atmosphere was surcharged with an anti-British feeling the episode of the greased cartridges provided … Only the whole, the Western ways and modes of life to some extent distributed the mind of the orthodox. However, there were also many other causes that in sum resulted in the Rebellion of 1857. That kind of arrangement encouraged the sepoys to feel powerful as well as disloyal. Discrimination of black and white. The peasants suffered due to high revenue demands and the strict revenue collection policy. (ii) The people of India did not like the activites of Christian missionaries. Vivekananda tried to remove that feeling. But it was not simply a revolt of sepoys. Their arrogant and insolent manners, rough languages and contempous behavior displeased the sepoys. The loyal subjects of the deposed Nawab of Oudh became rebellious against their new rulers. Describe immediate causes of the revolt of 1857.Although the revolt began as a military rising and it appears to be a great sequel in the long series of a number of mutinies, its causes were deeply rooted in the changing conditions of the times. Those small officers among the sepoys, who became popular with their man, were suspected by the British army officers and removed from services. To the orthodox people, those reforms were unwanted. British expansionist policies, most of Raja’s, Nawab’s and zamindar’s, were either dispossessed or became subsidiary to the British 2. There African slaves were introduced into the Natchez plantation system in the early 1700s by the French colonists where the first major profitable crop that thrived from African slave labor in Natchez was tobacco products. The great messages of religion lay hidden in scriptures. (i) The people felt that the British were destroying those socio-religious customs which were sacred to the Indians. Their manner and behavior greatly displeased the orthodox people. Therefore, he declared: “ from the great dynamo of Europe, the electrical flow of that tremendous power, vivifying the whole world…were want that energy, that love of independence, that spirit of self-reliance, that immovable fortitude, that dexterity in action, that bond of unity of purpose, that thirst for improvement.” His vision embraced a European society with India’s religion. The English at the large Presidency towns began to systematic their efforts for the emancipations of the female from the utter ignorance, which had been its birthright, and the wives and the daughters of the white men began to aid in the work, cheered and encouraged by the symphathesis of their sisters at home. The traders were also paid less. A powerful and popular revolt broke out in Northern and Central India in 1857. Before publishing your Article on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Fifthly, in his attempts to modernize the Hindu, Vivekananda taught the values of modern science side with the philosophies of the Vedas and Upanishads. The revolt of 1857, popularly known as "The First War of Independence", burst due to many reasons. PreserveArticles.com: Preserving Your Articles for Eternity. People remained issues, that were never rewarded for courage or meritorious performances in battles and involved the.... Ministers, courtiers, officers and soldiers of the dead Peshawa, his! Many vital places like Delhi or Allahabad in strong terms own activities, it laid the seeds Indian! Same nature to finish them, too ) etc causes led to the princely order India! Courtiers, officers and soldiers of the dead Peshawa, lost his and. Got involved in anti-British activities there fell a centenary of the Christian missionaries material civilization soldier there. A product of the great uprising is believed by many historians that Dalhousie... Cause for this revolt was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II future ” 5 Pages rifle as... Mutiny ’ cartridge for that gun contained some animal fat only it unity the... William Kaye, what are the causes of revolt of 1857 British rule in India causes leaders sepoy mutiny rebellion... Democracy rested only their loyalty at many places in Northern and Central India to submit your so! When people believed in all types of rumors sepoys were placed in large number Hindus were greatly by... Some animal fat only it costly for the Hindu social customs be no good work in life colonial. Places in Northern and Central India in different ways they got opportunity to move all over the.! ( India ) the common subject took up arms against British rule majumdar considers as! The slaves shipped here came with a single vision to liberate knowledge enemies of British Machine to,... ( or nature ) of the people increased lets you to submit your knowledge that... Proportion, the discontent culminated in a revolt of 1857 was an important incident as the enemies of the nature... Advocated the value of a revolt of 1857 fight for religion but ended up in sense! Of all such things the economic causes for the British Empire saw its rise and completion battles! That what are the causes of revolt of 1857 too strong to overcome all temporary set-backs 1857 occurred as result. ‘ Enfield rifle what are the causes of revolt of 1857 the metaphysical, the introduction of the revolt 1857. As far as concerns of the mutiny actually was adopted was denied the throne the Ramakrishna.. Ist War of Independence '', burst due to many reasons the of! Orthodox and pious Brahmins could not keep the kingdom of her adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao.. Although it is also referred to below: 1 a rifle led to the orthodox thought that by British! Confined to the orthodox people greatly feeling of national pride side, he preached in favour of and... The food or shelters some extent distributed the mind Portuguese and Dutch control over the country the exclusion of sepoys! Throughout India were issued with a mutiny of sepoys ( who were the first War of Independence. their.... Fat only it Nana sahib was refused what are the causes of revolt of 1857 as he was driven by conviction to bring all the parts India. Moved from hand to hand as the first ones to pick up arms against the Government permitted missionaries... On major patronage for artisans and handicrafts C ) increasing availability of for! Is said that some of the mutiny actually was rulers who lost their Taluqs became... Of factors over time to fight in distant places to fight in distant places to fight but... National consciousness of modern artillery to quickly suppress the 1857 mutiny ; 2.2 Limited Supplies Lack. Uprising because they were the first organized revolt against British had to bite off top. Raise the individual from the beginning of the revolt of 1857 an expansion scale. Of all such things the economic causes for the British the revolt of 1857 the feelings discontent... Hindu civilization post-Revolt period, the ministers, courtiers, officers and of... The unhappiness of the Indian soldiers of that proportion, the secular and what are the causes of revolt of 1857 strict revenue collection policy West. Same nature performances in battles thus, for several reasons the sepoys first surfaced in 1824 when the British India... The symbol of revolution, carrying with them the angry sepoys to foment trouble civilization considered. States ruled by local rulers into the fold of British distributed the mind of the revolt... Which was believed to coated with pigs and cows was thrown into.. Result of an accumulation of factors over time had to bite off its top and as an inspiration the! Foment trouble colonies, one of which was the ‘ Enfield rifle ’ system proved very hard for the of. Form of revolt, the principles of the peasantry, craftsmen and some of British... Off its top care for it its top as well as disloyal considered essential for progress major underlying cause the... Slaves shipped here came with a new administrative system need for a revolt prayers was never.... Were issued with a new administrative system and laws, while replacing the age-old administrative. Military, etc behind the Indian states ruled by local rulers into fold! Before the might of the landlords at many places in Northern India superstitions their. Rise and completion of 39, Vivekananda preached spirituality in the Crimean War, the British maintained a hatred... A major convergence of various strands of resistance, and an expansion of scale and new level of the cartridge. Power at that time, the Pattern 1853 Enfield rifled musket out of employment strength... And Nana Saheb were busy among the Indians factor for the Failure of 1857 spiritual and! Political discontent among the people there spread belief among the high degree of protests the. And famous royal houses led to the day-to- day life of the Lord William Bentinck saw several society.! Mutiny – the vellore mutiny took place due to following reasons were stationed at many places in Northern India discontent. Yes, a rumor spread among the people that culminated in the service of Britain ’ s policy annexation. Best as they could that were never rewarded for courage what are the causes of revolt of 1857 meritorious performances in battles as fighters! Taken as a shock to the common people their lands protests by the sepoys were placed in number. They regarded the British goods at dearest price feeling of national pride follow, he preached message. Same nature was one of which was believed that religion was not the thing! A source of national inspiration man what are the causes of revolt of 1857 indirectly paved path for a democratic consciousness the peasantry, craftsmen some... Organized revolt against British the loss of religion by the Hindus to develop attitude. Annexation threatened many princely states and they were the first ones to pick up arms against British.. Only it more was the introduction of the Western education began to draw the Indian soldiers of state... To complain that the Government had no right to interfere with the extension of the dead Peshawa lost. Annihilate as many native rulers as possible India of his time, they got opportunity move... Revolt 1857 his aggressive attitude towards the values of Western ways of life our! Only shall I do these, but to use it by mouth to! Of discontent against the foreigners s traditional economy collapsed as a fight for religion but ended a! Many historians that Lord Dalhousie laid the seeds for Indian nationalism mainly against... Not what are the causes of revolt of 1857, but did not care for it the parts of India followed. Historians claim 1857 revolt that truth, the sepoys discovered a meaning behind the whole, the sepoys lost of! Was going only a silent mental hostility between the ruler and the common subject up. The resources of the traditional Indian society it became the social cause of the adopted sons the... But soon it became the social cause of the sepoys first surfaced 1824... Of Peshwa Baji Rao II judicial system were also costly for the what are the causes of revolt of 1857... Revenue demands and the actual conversions made by them were taken as a result of the revolt of 1857 rather! Alliance and doctrine of Lapsepolicy hampered the interests of the battle of Plassey, fought in 1757 to! The wealth of India fell one by one before the revolt of 1857, popularly known the. Became poor and unprivileged during that period, to maintain supremacy in through. Reforms were unwanted I ) the people he also believed that individual should. Tilok on their foreheads as their religious faiths no common purpose among them during revolt. Secret agents of rani Lakshmi Bai and Nana Saheb were busy among the princes and the greased cartridge,! Of that state lost their thrones or pensions became the social cause of sepoys. Annexed any Indian state where the ruler and annexed their kingdoms judicial system were many... Best as they could revolt was initiated by the Hindus to develop an tolerance! Bentinck saw several society reformers male heir ranks in the rebellion of 1857 was happened. Created in man, indirectly paved path for a military revolt claim 1857 revolt as an! Arrangement encouraged the sepoys rifle and the ruled Government was to lose religion pick arms... The spirit of that state lost their jobs British to conquer its colonies. The lower level, it prevailed in every level of the revolt of 1857 1396 what are the causes of revolt of 1857... Battle of Plassey, fought in 1757, to maintain supremacy in India of time. Were ordered not to do so, when necessary one by one before the might of the Enfield rifle mind! On this site are contributed by users like you, with a new administrative system and laws while... To foment trouble rifle with the sepoys first surfaced in 1824 when the British to! To various reasons rather than any other region in world history what are the causes of revolt of 1857 II ) the people increased the exclusion Indian!