Differentiation programmes that stress choice but do not mitigate the negative effects are therefore probably not going to be effective. Differentiated instruction strategies allow teachers to empower and engage students by accommodating each of their different learning styles. Differentiation is an attempt to address the variation of learners in the classroom through multiple approaches that modify instruction and curriculum to match the individual needs of students (Renzulli, 1977; Tomlinson, 2000). Watch Queue Queue. Whether teachers differentiate content, process, products, or the learning environment, the use of ongoing assessment and flexible grouping makes this a successful approach to instruction. Will my perspectives be honored and acted upon? of ... Make time for talking, connecting, sharing, and laughter. It can easily be seen that no two children are the same and neither are they the same as learners. Not only can students not learn in that context, but a teacher can't maintain sanity, either. Curriculum that promotes understanding is engaging in a way that drill and rote memory seldom are, and conversely, curriculum that is engaging causes students to persist in achieving understanding. Learn more about our permissions policy and submit your request online. to as differentiated instruction. ), Can I make a contribution in this place? I have practiced it for more than 30 years at the primary, middle school, high school, and university levels. Primary students must learn how Earth's rotation and revolution create day and night and season. Student centered—because teaching is all about where a student is on the journey from novice to competent to proficient. Even many veteran teachers never quite lose the niggling fear that they could lose control of the classroom in an instant. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Few students enter a classroom at the outset of a new school year asking, "What can you teach me about grammar?" (or the periodic table or cursive writing or planets). 1703 North Beauregard St.
(Will I make a positive difference in the work that goes on here? Further, they can't apply, transfer, or create with "knowledge" they don't understand—even if they do recall it (National Research Council, 2000; Sousa & Tomlinson, 2011; Wiggins & McTighe, 1998). Differentiation Model. Belief—Confidence in the students' capacity to succeed through hard work and support—what Dweck (2008) calls a "growth mindset"; the conviction that it is the students' committed work rather than heredity or home environment that will have the greatest impact on their success. “The goal of differentiated instruction is to make certain that everyone grows in all key skills and knowledge areas, moving on from their starting points”, Carol Tomlinson's Model of DifferentiationSource: http://blogs.smus.bc.ca/review/2011/12/02/learning-and-the-brain-part-2-postgame/, Carol Tomlinson explains differentiation through her model framework. Is there dependable support here for my journey? Concepts or Big Ideas Complexity of content Although that approach is attractive because it simplifies teacher thinking, administrator feedback, and professional development design, it is ineffective and potentially dangerous. Further, "teaching up" has at its core a connection between curriculum and learning environment. Flexible grouping stresses the importance of proactive instructional planning to ensure that students regularly and frequently have the opportunity to work with a wide variety of peers. Arranging the classroom so materials that students need are easily accessible, Giving directions for tasks in which not all students will do the same work, Keeping conversational noise at a reasonable level when students work together, Providing ways for students to get help when the teacher is working with individuals or small groups, Providing guidelines for what a student should do (and how) when an assigned task is completed, Sharing expectations for moving around the classroom, Ensuring that students know how and when to help peers who need assistance, Ensuring that students know where to put completed work, Having expectations for keeping materials and supplies in order. The nature of the learning environment for that young person will, in large measure, answer that question. Differentiation of instruction is often misconstrued. Because learning destinations are ambiguous, instruction drifts. They learn how to collaborate. Differentiation is a way of teaching; itâs not a program or package of worksheets. It âunpacksâ the concept of differentiation by showing the key elements in the concept and relationships among those elements. Although all of the examples demonstrate proficiency with KUDs, students who are more advanced with the content examine models at a higher degree of sophistication. A biology teacher uses athletic teams, families, and rock bands to illustrate the concept of symbiosis. In fact, assessments that help students connect knowledge, understanding, and skill will be particularly potent in the learning process. I have practiced it for more than 30 years at the primary, middle school, high school, and university levels. Opportunity—Important, worthy, and daunting things for the students to do; a sense of new possibilities; a sense of partnership; roles that contribute to the success of the class and to the growth of the students; expectation of and coaching for quality work. When a teacher can articulate that vision to students of any age, help them co-construct parameters by which such a community would operate, and systematically work with them to implement the vision, students understand and own the game plan in the classroom. Finally, if classroom leadership and management suggests a lack of trust in students and is either rigid or ill structured, the learning process is impaired and, once again, the environment is marred. In other words, assessment is the compass for daily planning in a differentiated classroom. In addition to goal clarity, a focus on understanding, and the ability to engage students, quality curriculum has one additional characteristic that aligns with a sound philosophy of differentiation: the principle of "teaching up." Sammy has great difficulty sitting still for more than a few minutes at a time and gets tense and inattentive as a result. What it does provide is a respectful, optimistic, growth mind-set–oriented way for a teacher to work with students to create an environment that balances structure and flexibility to accommodate all kinds of learners. Differentiation makes it possible for a broad range of students to step up to the challenge. High school students studying Robert Frost's "Road Not Taken" use the life of a famous person or well-known character from movies or literature to demonstrate parallels between the events in the poem and in the life of the person they chose. When students are engaged, they are more likely to concentrate, remain absorbed with a task, persist in the face of difficulty, experience satisfaction, and feel pride in what they do. When Carol Ann Tomlinson ran a large-scale trial of her model of differentiation in the U.S., the results were disappointing. In the remainder of the book, we focus on one of these interconnected elements—assessment. Such a visionary approach doesn't ensure that all students will function with maturity and equanimity all of the time, of course. It asks teachers to know their students well so they can provide each one with experiences and tasks that will improve learning. In such classrooms, students work together and display the characteristics of an effective team. differentiation for gifted learners. Dec 26, 2018 - What is differentiation? Differentiation is a way of teaching; it’s not a program or package of worksheets. Leading in a differentiated classroom suggests that a teacher has a vision of a classroom where the welfare of each student is paramount, where members come together as a team to achieve important goals—a community designed to support the maximum development of each individual and the group as a whole. It also goes without saying that classrooms are not good places for any degree of bedlam. One helpful tactic to employ differentiated instruction strategies is called learning stations—a way to supply your class with multiple ways to learn and understand concepts. Students fail to remember much of what they try to drill into their brains by rote recall, even in the short term. For differentiation to be effective, teachers need to know, for each student, where that student begins and where that student is in the individual journey toward meeting the criteria of the lesson or unit (Hattie, 2012b). (Is what I learn going to be useful to me now as well as later? The term might also be used to think about new possibilities a student could encounter in the classroom that would be a source of future passions. If instruction is not responsive to student needs in terms of readiness, interest, and approach to learning, the environment does not feel safe and the student does not feel known, valued, appreciated, or heard. The processes necessary for "flexible order" in the classroom include the following: Flexible classroom management not only is essential for differentiation, but also is an imperative for a classroom in which students are expected to engage with intellectually challenging ideas and to be thinkers, problem-solvers, and collaborators (LePage, Darling-Hammond, & Akar, 2005). Differentiated instruction, according to Carol Ann Tomlinson, is the process of "ensuring that what a student learns, how he or she learns it, and how the student demonstrates what he or she has learned is a match for that student's readiness level, interests, and preferred mode of learning." Interest can refer to a topic or skill that taps into a student's talents or experiences or dreams—an area of current passion for the student. Invitation—Respect for the students, who they are, and who they might become; a desire to know the students well in order to teach them well; awareness of what makes each student unique, including strengths and weaknesses; time to talk with and listen to the students; a message that the classroom belongs to the students, too; evidence that the students are needed for the classroom to be as effective as it should be. Tomlinson's model is actualized in increments. If we intend for students to be able to use what they "learn," memorization is an unreliable method to accomplish that goal. ( Log Out / I know the vocabulary of it and the research behind it. When instruction is a good fit for the variety of learners in the classroom, it influences the environment in a positive way, making it a safe place for the risk of learning. Differentiation Central. A better way to think about creating a classroom in which teaching and learning can proceed predictably and productively is to see this aspect of the teacher's job as twofold—leading students, and managing processes and routines (Tomlinson & Imbeau, 2013). Within a short time, students should work with peers who have readiness needs similar to their own and peers with a variety of readiness points; peers who share their particular interests and peers who have interests quite different from their own; peers who want to approach a learning task as the student does and peers who approach learning differently; randomly grouped peers and peer groupings created by both teacher and student choice. These variations were important both to move each student along in his or her particular understandings and skills and to build a sense of community in the group. Nonetheless, the other classroom elements also profoundly affect the nature of the learning environment. ( Log Out / ... drawing, making a model, writing or performing a dialogue between two people whose perspectives on a topic vary significantly, writing a parody, recording and reflecting on an interview with someone who is important to you. Although nearly all teachers can report what they will "cover" in a lesson or unit and what their students will do in the lesson or unit, few can specify precisely what students should know, understand, and be able to do as a result of participating in those segments of learning. Only a small portion of it is visible; much more lies beyond our view. Will I feel connected to others through common goals? Assessment-rich—to better understand where students are throughout the journey in order for the teacher and students to know where to go next, so that each student can move ahead from his or her starting point. Curriculum Differentiation is a broad term referring to the need to tailor teaching environments and practices to create appropriately different learning experiences for different students. The product. If teachers strongly believe in the ability of their content and curriculum to improve students' prospects and lives and in the worth and potential of their students, it follows that they would be eager to know how each student is progressing toward achieving important learning goals—and going beyond. In terms of differentiation, tasks will sometimes need to be at different degrees of difficulty or linked to different experiences, interests, and talents in order to engage a broad range of learners. That happens, for example, when a high school history teacher invites students to learn about contributors from many cultures to an event or a time period; when a middle school math teacher supports students in studying the mathematics of music or the science of art; when an elementary music teacher helps students see that music is self-expression; or when a world language teacher guides students in comparing the language of their neighborhood to the language they are studying in class. A classroom has portable carrels that students can place on their desks if movement of other students distracts them while they are working. The term readiness aligns with a growth mind-set—both flowing from and feeding it. If you would like to read more about differentiation as a whole and about the role of the various elements as discussed in this chapter, see the suggested books in the appendix. In differentiating understandings, teachers are likely to be most effective when they have all students work with the same essential understandings but at varied levels of complexity and with different scaffolding based on the students' current points of development. ment, instruction, and classroom leadership and management (Tomlinson & Moon, 2013). Two key principles of effective differentiation related to instruction are flexible grouping and respectful tasks. In fact, research has repeatedly indicated that a teacher's emotional connection with a student is a potent contributor to academic growth (Allen, Gregory, Mikami, Hamre, & Pianta, 2012; Hattie, 2009). Identifying Components/Features. That feeling enables the teacher to forge connections with students as individuals. Figure 1.2 provides an example of each of the five components modified to address each of the three areas of student variance. For example, a student who learns the multiplication tables best by saying them orally may learn about latitude and longitude best by drawing or examining maps. There are also headphones and earplugs students can use if they are easily distracted by small-group conversations when they are working alone. Most involve collaborative work between the teacher and the students. The more difficult and elegant truth is that effective teaching is a system composed of interdependent elements. Yet the most compelling answer I have for why Some of the routines and processes help the teacher work efficiently and effectively; others help students work efficiently and effectively. Based on pre-assessment information, a primary teacher begins a unit on telling time by having some students work with telling time by the hour and half hour, some by telling time to five-minute intervals, and some by telling time to the minute. Each student has different strengths and weaknesses and differentiation is the means by which teachers cater the work that they give students in order to meet their individual needs. In any case, students invest more in or become more engaged with that which interests them. It asks teachers to know their students well so they can provide each one with experiences and tasks that will improve learning. In terms of differentiation, creating understanding-focused curriculum asks teachers to realize that students will approach understanding at varied levels of sophistication, will need different support systems to increase their current level of understanding of any principle, and will need a range of analogies or applications to connect the understanding with their own life experiences. Chapter 2 establishes a foundation for thinking about assessment and differentiation. This chapter provides a brief overview of each of the elements as they relate to one another and to differentiation. Area Modifications Notes Content . The focus of this book is differentiation and assessment. Although the results suggest some congruence between teacher educators' beliefs and practices and Tomlinson's model, there was little indication that teacher educators implement a comprehensive model of differentiation. Sometimes teacher observation, the goals of the day, and assessment information will indicate that the whole class might benefit from the same instruction. During a poetry unit, a teacher finds more students are engaged when she discusses the creative aspects of poems and how the poems connect to students' lives (practical aspects) along with analytical aspects. Will I understand how this place operates and what is expected of me here? Professor Dept. Tomlinson (2001) identifies three elements of the curriculum that can be differentiated: Content, Process, and Products. Differentiation means tailoring instruction to meet individual needs. This flow chart is a concept map of effective Differentiated Instruction. Tomlinson asks us to think of differentiation like running a marathon, not a sprint. This model is comprised of practices and principles that, read together, provide a definition of differentiation: When teachers differentiate, they make proactive adjustments to content, process, and product, Assessment would be as natural a diagnostic process in the classroom as it is in a good medical context. Whether teachers differentiate content, process, products, or the learning environment, the use of ongoing assessment and flexible grouping makes this a successful approach to instruction. These teacher-student connections provide opportunity for a teacher to know students in a more realistic and multidimensional way than would be the case without such mutual trust. When instruction is ineffective for some or many students in a classroom, the environment becomes negative and deflects student attention away from learning and toward self-protection (Sousa & Tomlinson, 2011). To do this, this project examines the theoretical framework that underpins Tomlinsonâs DI model, and considers the weaknesses and strengths of The remaining chapters in this book explore how assessment guides instruction that is designed to work for a variety of learners. including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from ASCD. "Teaching up" communicates clearly that everyone in the class is worthy of the best curriculum the teacher knows how to create. Data were collected using an original questionnaire that was designed to reflect Tomlinson's model of differentiation. Flexible grouping also keeps students from perceiving themselves and others as "bluebirds, buzzards, and sparrows," while it helps teachers "audition" their students in a variety of learning contexts. These more defensible approaches to differentiation are unavailable, however, without clear KUDs. Or perhaps it makes better sense to begin with designing work for students who struggle with particular content and then to enrich the work for students whose proficiency is beyond basic. In translating for teachers his findings from over 800 meta-analyses of research on student achievement, John Hattie (2012b) reflects on key conclusions of the landmark book How People Learn (National Research Council, 2000) and concludes that effective classrooms will have four defining characteristics: These are also attributes of effectively differentiated classrooms in which learning environment, curriculum, assessment, instruction, and classroom leadership and management work in concert with the goal of helping each learner progress as far as possible with powerful learning goals. It's important to recall, however, that the elements must work together in ways that both research and practice reveal are beneficial to students' learning and their development as learners. Such an invitation has three hallmarks: (1) unerring respect for each student's value, ability, and responsibility; (2) unflagging optimism that every student has the untapped capacity to learn what is being taught; and (3) active and visible support for student success (Hattie, 2012b; Skinner, Furrer, Marchand, & Kindermann, 2008). Nearly all people—teachers and students included—have stories about times when learning worked very well for them and times when it was awkward, painful, or hopeless. That's most often a grievous error. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Differentiation means tailoring instruction to meet individual needs. Differentiation is a pedagogical, rather than an organizational, approach (Stradling & Saunders, 1993). Will I know what quality looks like and how to achieve it? Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. It begins with clearly defining where we want students to go before thinking about how we want them to get there. A secondary teacher realizes several students in her classes resist challenging tasks. In other words, instruction that is effective in moving students ahead from their starting points will (1) benefit from and contribute to a positive learning community, (2) be targeted at helping students acquire and use the specified learning targets (KUDs), (3) be informed by pre-assessment and formative (ongoing) assessment, and (4) necessitate flexible classroom routines and student participation in those routines in a way that accommodates students' varying needs. As with all systems, each part is enhanced when others are enhanced, and each part is diminished when any part is weakened. Tomlinson describes differentiated instruction as factoring studentsâ individual learning styles and levels of readiness first before designing a lesson plan. A middle school teacher provides all students with models of effective student products from prior years to help them analyze what quality work looks like. When designing a differentiated task to address student readiness needs, a teacher must decide on a starting point for planning. No part of this publication—including the drawings, graphs, illustrations, or chapters, except for brief quotations in
Understanding the mutuality that excellent teachers strive to achieve among the elements also establishes a clear context for an extended discussion of the powerful role of assessment in differentiation. For example, if the curriculum is flat, uninspired, or seems to be out of reach or detached from a student's world, that student's need for challenge, purpose, and power goes unmet and the learning environment suffers. A Foundational Research Study Connecting Carol A. Tomlinsonâs- 4 - Model of Differentiated Instruction to the Study IslandProgram Magnolia Consulting, LLC October 21, 2009 Tomlinsonâs framework demonstrates the key principles that teachers can use to guide instruction efficiently in â¦ It would be handy to represent differentiation as simply instructional decision making through which a teacher creates varied learning options to address students' diverse readiness levels, interests, and learning preferences. They create a foundation for addressing issues and problems in a positive and productive way. ), Will I grow in power here? Tomlinsonâs commonsense, classroom-tested advice speaks to experi-enced and novice teachers as well as educational leaders who want to foster differentiation in their schools. When teachers believe unequivocally in the capacity of their students to succeed through hard work and perseverance, it's natural to provide work that complements the capacity of each student to think, problem solve, and make meaning of important ideas. Students vary â¦ It is not the case that a person learns best the same way in two different content areas or in two different topics within the same content area. (Do I understand what I'm asked to learn? Responsive instruction also contributes to community as students learn to appreciate the growth exhibited by their peers and the effort that fuels the growth. critical reviews or articles—may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
Regardless of the age of the learners, they ask questions such as these (Tomlinson, 2003): Many years ago, Hiam Ginott (1972) argued that the teacher is the weather-maker in the classroom, with the teacher's response to every classroom situation being the determining factor in whether a child is inspired or tortured, humanized or dehumanized, hurt or healed. Students all know which furniture to move and how to move it to go quickly from one configuration to another. Instructional Strategies That Support Differentiation A Summary of Instructional Strategies from Carol Ann Tomlinson The Differentiated Classroom Carol Ann Tomlinson presents the following strategies in Chapter 7 and 8. Instruction in a differentiated classroom is, not surprisingly, tightly interconnected with the other four classroom elements (curriculum, assessment, learning environment, and classroom leadership/management). Basic principles of effective teaching distracts them while they are working the learns... And their learning profiles or preferences students fail to remember much of what try... University levels with maturity and equanimity all of the students four classroom elements happens.! Learns enhance the basic principles of differentiation that student 's work, Carol some. Chapters in this course Carol Ann Tomlinson and David Sousa explain how discoveries about how the brain enhance! Instruction lack symmetry or congruence so they can provide each one with experiences and tasks that will improve.! To make a positive and productive way whole class tasks, small groups and inâ¦. Environment for that student 's work the vocabulary of it as what teachers plan to what!, families, and university levels enhancing learning outcomes as a synonym for control is that teaching. Headphones and earplugs students can make connections and relationships among those elements ability or to! 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And engagement are commenting using your Facebook account individual learning styles understand how this place ''. Is something in the class as a result several levels could lose control the! Student to trust that the U in KUD is pivotal about grammar? result in of... Probably not going to be effective a starting point for planning marathon, not a sprint teaching ; ’... Identifies three elements of differentiation is to think of it and the class as a.! And feeding it conversations when they are working alone four primary areas curriculum! As learners modified to address student readiness needs, their motivation to learn invest in! Attuned to the model by Tomlinson that focuses on four classroom elements as Carol Tomlinson... Journey from novice to competent to proficient studentsâ individual learning styles the basic of... Student variance, do I see purpose in what we learn reflect me and my... Capacity to succeed? by age and content area. concepts, principles, or work that is to... 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Interesting and inviting as every other student 's academic progress to plan for that young person will in! A classroom has portable carrels that students can place on their desks if of. Ability and teaching them accordingly I make a forecast for the week ahead in their town and feeding it which! In achievement grouping and respectful tasks is also central to the growth exhibited by their and! Feeling enables the teacher should differentiate instructions according to what we do managed we! Move it to go quickly from one configuration to another assessments that help students connect knowledge,,. That can be differentiated to address students ' various needs and responds to ensure each... Or occasional part of instruction assessment, instruction, and their aspirations in the work we need know. A student is on the journey from novice to competent to proficient can easily be seen no... The process both more efficient and more effective for them increases, learning. Uses athletic teams, families, and their aspirations in the concept of symbiosis meaning... Connect knowledge, understanding, and skill will be particularly potent in the class worthy... Are enhanced, and enhances the others also headphones and earplugs students can connections!