e. All of our materials are FAA Burn Certified. However, there’s very different from testing to the full requirements of FAR 23 Appendix F and not just section (e), since we would have to produce result from all the tests described in Appendix F, not just the “horizontal test.”. The author of posting, Rod Farlee, pointed out revisions to AC 43-13-1B, Paragraphs 9-60 and 9-62, which state, Paragraph 9-60: “Only materials that are flash resistant should be used in cabin interiors.”. I fired back that: “Per FAR 23.853a, all aircraft must use interior materials that are ‘flame-resistant’ not ‘fire-retardant’ as you specified. a. The FAA Aircraft Certification Blog is a special page featuring short messages about new additions and updates to this website. We offer a wide range of aviation upholstery services, including replacing your worn-out seats and creating special custom interiors for your aircraft. Two more are already in the certification process : – LAN CHILE – PHILIPPINES AIRLINES . We can use any interior materials we wish, as long as they are “flame-resistant.”, AC 23-2, Section 4(b) provides guidance concerning acceptable means, but not the only means, of complying with the FAR 1 definition of “flame-resistant.” These procedures mimic FAR 23 Appendix F Section (e), the “horizontal test.”. As an example, when the aircraft interior panels are required to be self-extinguishing, a surrogate panel without the new finish is tested that must show a longer, or worse, 60-second vertical bum length than the old panel. If I had obtained test results from a testing lab which uses those procedures, and these test results were acceptable, I would be in compliance with FAR 23 regulations. With over thirty years of experience in aircraft interiors, we know aviation upholstery fabrics. Woody Kessler Chief, Aviation Training Branch. We have our semi-official “answer.” Maybe we’ll let sleeping dogs lie…. And airliners use approved materials. Aircraft Maintenance: Major vs minor alterations, part 2 Aircraft Maintenance: Major vs minor alterations, part 2 October 22, 2014 By Jeff Simon Last time, we covered the importance of determining if an alteration to an aircraft is major or minor . This effectively defers legal requirements back to FAR 23.853. The first 747-8F Freighter … Problem is, while the FAA defines what it is, they don’t tell us how to demonstrate it. All rights reserved. All of Skandia's Flammability checklists are now online; mobile and tablet ready. Creating value for our customers through innovation and continuous improvement. “For this reason, [I wonder if] the verbiage was to clarify a reference to materials located on the firewall, cabin side.”. The same thing is said in an article Interior Confusion by Bill O’Brien (National Resource Specialist, General and Sport Aviation, Continuous Airworthiness Maintenance Division, AFS-300 Flight Standards Service, FAA, DC HQ). So the next thing I did was get on the phone with one of the certified testing labs and ask them what would be required for me to legally use automotive fabrics in my Part 91, FAR 23-certified aircraft. These components can be grouped into five basic areas (see figure C-1): foam cushions, upholsteries, fire blockers, plastic moldings, and structure. What should you do?”, “With regard to what the AYA member might say to FSDO about you, I think you may have been right: The ‘flame resistant’ test may be sufficient. Provides FAA ARFF guidance for airports certificated under Part 139. This test is almost verbatim the same “horizontal test” procedures as that called out in FAR 23, Appendix F, section (e). I decided I better check into the question of legalities further. YIKES! “Think of it this way: 23.853 deals solely with ‘Passenger and crew compartment interiors.’ Agreed? 1.1* Scope. - Repair and refinish woodwork as required. However, what you will get from testing labs like Skandia is a certification and testing results sheet showing compliance with the FARs. THE AVIATION SUPERSTORE FOR ALL YOUR AIRCRAFT & PILOT NEEDS | 877-4-SPRUCE ... Home / Covering Supplies / Interiors / Vinyl Upholstery / Faux Leather Upholstery Material. Under CAR-3 only the outside material is fire resistant. 4. The fact that the STC is … If materials meet the definition of “self extinguishing” are they automatically covered for “flame resistant” as well? This includes generating an engineering test plan, conformity of test articles and FAA approval. But get both tests done anyway.”. Important Flammability Information Regarding: ISO 17025:2017. “Despite the fact that this work is absolutely legal for an owner to do on their own (as I did), I would strongly encourage others to work with their local IA to make sure all work is done to proper standards (as I did) otherwise they could certainly run afoul of their picky IA (as mine is) at the next annual inspection or when selling the aircraft (which I have no immediate plans to do).”. I wasn’t complaining, mind you, just curious. FAR 25.853 App.F, Part IV; Smoke Density Interior Capabilities - Recovering of all aircraft interior soft goods to include headliners, passenger service panels, bulkheads etc. FAA Policy on Use of the Aircraft Materials Fire Test Handbook. Part 43 Non-Applicable Aircraft. Our team is fully prepared to … “What,” I asked, “is Skandia’s rationale for their position that only flame resistance (and hence only the horizontal test) is required for GA aircraft, as asserted to [Greg Amy]?”. Flammability Burn, Heat Release, Smoke Emission, and Toxicity. The Aircraft Interior Technician’s primary responsibilities include: inspecting, replacing, recovering, fabricating, upholstering and repairing ceiling, sidewall, cockpit and door panels; replacing and repairing passenger, attendant and cockpit seats and overhead bins and galleys; and replacing and repairing flooring, drapes, curtains, carpeting, closets, bulkheads, washroom … STC SH12-45: Interior Wall Blanket Installation. Well a simple check of FAR 1, “Definitions and Abbreviations,” defines: “Flame resistant” means not susceptible to combustion to the point of propagating a flame, beyond safe limits, after the ignition source is removed. degree of fire - resistance. Even better, they can also treat your materials (at additional charge) so that they will definitely pass muster, should you have any doubt. The Bell X-1 is one of aviation history's most important—and interesting—aircraft. Skandia Announces New Improved Damping Product Line: AeroDamp Advanced. Why do all this research? Pick out your favorite materials, yes even Aunt Martha’s sofa covering, and if it passes the $40 test, you’re in! This also include s electrical material burn resistance requirements. (The full FAR 23 is available on the FAA website; it makes great bedtime reading…) So, keep that web page open and follow along as we parse FAR 23.853: (a) “The materials must be at least flame resistant”. In my own case, despite the fact that I had personally tested the materials to the definition as described in FAR 1, I concluded that I was illegal by installing these materials without complying with the test procedures outlined in AC 23-2, 4(b). Note that I had initially dismissed section (f) as being applicable to my seat covers, because at first glance I assumed it referred only to items that were actually attached to the firewall, cabin side. (Skandia is a certified testing lab, and can test samples that you provide for about $40 per sample.) In your opinion, 23.853(f) refers to all passenger and crew compartment interior materials that exist on the cabin side of the firewall. The Paint Certification for Airbus is also in the works and will be completed very soon. “… Section (f) deals with materials attached to the … firewall, cabin side. Addresses US aviation fire fighting and rescue topics and requirements, such as airport fire trucks, ARFF training, fire communications, firefighter protection, accident scenes, airport fire fighting facilities, airport fire engine rollover, and more. My rationale that part (f), too, is required, probably hasn’t occurred to him. The kicker is in AC 43-13-1B paragraph 9-62: “Materials used in Part 23 aircraft interiors must meet the requirements of Section 23.853, and the burn test requirements called out in Part 23, Appendix F.”. The FAA Aircraft Certification Blog is a special page featuring short messages about new additions and updates to this website. I wrote it up for the AYA Star, a newsletter published by the American Yankee Association, and it was published in the Nov/Dec ’98 issue under the title Finally! Regardless of the aircraft component a manufacturer seeks to install on an aircraft, proving compliance to the relevant regulatory requirements is required. Affected operators are required to comply with these amendments af ter November 26, 1987. In addition, what about “flame resistant”? STC SA12-60: Seat back and Seat Base, 2. WORLD'S PREMIER INDEPENDENT AVIATION NEWS RESOURCE. Aviation being governed by entropy, it's perfectly normal to drive to the airport five times just to fly once. Given these facts, appears that an owner can install an interior into their Part 91 aircraft, using any materials that meet the definition of “flame resistant.” Given the test procedures required by AC 23-2, it is unlikely that an owner can perform to the legal limit of the testing procedures, so at approximately $40 per test it is cost-effective to pay an FAA-certified testing lab to certify successful completion of the testing. AVweb reader Greg Amy refurbished the interior of his Grumman Tiger with automotive cloth and vinyl materials, but subsequently became concerned about whether those materials were legal for use in his aircraft. - Recovering of all cockpit and cabin seating to include required burn certification requirements. This statement is incorrect and I will personally make the correction to the AC in Change 1 which is due to go to the government printing office on November 1, 1999…”. A few months after all this happened, I came upon a similar discussion in the rec.aviation.owning newsgroup, dealing with the same issues. All nonmetallic seat parts must meet FAR 25.853(b). This AC applies to materials for … Or vice-versa? Materials used in part 23 aircraft interiors must meet the requirements of section 23.853, and the burn test requirements called out in part 23, appendix F. a. I was directed to FAA Advisory Circular 23-2, “Flammability Tests.” AC 23-2 “provides information and guidance concerning acceptable means … of complying with… Part 23 of the [FAR] applicable to flammability tests for various materials…”Section 4(b) of the AC provides the acceptable procedures for “demonstrating compliance with regulations for flame-resistant materials.”. Which tosses yet another definition at us. Key Words Fire Safety, Aircraft interior materials, Flammability 18. “But which part of this is actually important? Aircraft owners invest millions of dollars into their aircraft and part of that investment is in the interior. How do we prove our materials are “flame resistant”? The bad news is that, like the AIM, the ACs can be used against you if you fly in the face of them. Do you want to sit on something flammable in a Grumman?”. - Recovering of all cockpit and cabin seating to include required burn certification requirements. The certification of transport category cabin interiors requires a thorough understanding of Part 25 Transport Category aircraft cabin interior safety and crashworthiness regulations and compliance requirements. However, it is interesting to note that our aircraft were certified to FAR 23 standards, yet we have unprotected high-pressure fuel and oil lines running right into the cabin. Then the fun began. What does the FAA have to say about the materials you or the shop uses? Bottom line: We do the horizontal test for “flame resistant” and “self-extinguishing” test (i.e. The Boeing 747-8 is a wide-body airliner developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes, the latest and largest variant of the 747.After introducing the 747-400, Boeing considered larger 747 versions as alternatives to Airbus A3XX.The stretched 747 Advanced was launched as the 747-8 on November 14, 2005, for a market forecast of 300 aircraft. However, the need for this testing procedure is only called out in FAR 23.853 section (d); however, section (d) applies to ‘commuter category airplanes’ only. Training in Dräger aircraft fire simulators is the ideal preparation for this. … Most deaths in a survivable crash occur from smoke according to a recent Transport Canada study. … For self-extinguishing materials…, a vertifical [sic] self-extinguishing test must be conducted in accordance with Appendix F…”. All interiors are issued a burn certificate when manufactured or modified. Although FAR 23.853(d) “self extinguishing” requirement explicitly applies only to “commuter category airplanes,” the FAA apparently interprets it as applying to all aircraft certified under FAR 23 by saying all FAR 23 aircraft must meet Appendix F testing! ... Dräger Interior Live Fire Training System (ILFTS) Dräger’s Interior Live Fire Training Systems can be operated with a comprehensive variety of training scenarios—residential or commercial. The material for your aircraft must be ‘flame resistant.’, “You are also right regarding the Part 23 aircraft interior statement in Advisory Circular AC 43.13-1b that require all materials to meet the Appendix F burn test. or, Do we test these materials to be “self-extinguishing” per the Appendix F procedure? Our involvement over the years with Boeing, Douglas Aircraft, Airbus and Bombardier, as well as with numerous airlines has given us a broad knowledge of the interiors of a vast array of airlines. “…(f) applies to all materials which are close enough to the firewall (even if not attached) to ignite when a 2000 F flame is applied to the firewall for 15 minutes. So there we were, trying to figure out why FAR 23.853(f) apparently does not apply to our aircraft. Nothing, nada. Interior Capabilities - Recovering of all aircraft interior soft goods to include headliners, passenger service panels, bulkheads etc. PART 23 AIRCRAFT INTERIOR. 9-62. Personalized carpet & cabin interior products. Established in 1989, we specialize in designing and producing interiors for clients within the aerospace, commercial, and transportation industries. This was good enough for a commercial buildings insurance and license-to-use. Regardless of whether it is a simple modification, a specialized completion (VIP or VVI So, where’s the definition of “flame resistant,” and how do we prove it? (e) “Lines, tanks, or equipment containing fuel, oil, or other flammable fluids”, Not applicable to our discussion about interior fabrics et al. We are a premiere American carpet manufacturer and provider of quality aircraft interior products / finishes. They passed, and I got my pretty certificates that made me legal. 1.1.1 This standard shall contain the minimum requirements for training all fire suppression personnel engaged in firefighting operations under live fire conditions. The results of Rate of Heat Release (OSU) as measured from our Marlin Engineering Heat Release Chamber. Burn certificate available on request. a. Composite panel burn testing and why it is required b. A newly-developed water spray system provides for the abatement of smoke generated in the hot-fire trainer during the fire training exercise. The regulations are very specific. If the fabric is bought in bulk to refurbish a part 23 aircraft then the fabric must meet the part 23 burn … I wound up talking to AOPA and Jack Theden (pronounced”the-DEEN”) of Skandia Aircraft Interiors, telephone (815) 227-1611. All this could have gone away if I simply sent swatches of the materials to an FAA-approved testing facility and had them tested and signed off (at a cost of about $40 per sample). Our team is fully prepared to take on any project, regardless of the scope. Therefore we have the de facto, approved, DER-certified FAA testing standard for FAR23.853(a) definition of “flame resistant.” Further, this implies that the FAR 23.853(f) test for “self-extinguishing” is not required for Part 91 aircraft. Save, return, and view your checklists at any time. This risk can be effectively managed through compliance with this standard. So I sent samples from the same batch of material to Skandia for testing afterwards. Criteria are presented herein for the design of a smoke-abated, aircraft crash and rescue, fire training facility. Aviation Safety Bureau - ASB Members Area This is a link to Aviation Safety Bureau's members area, where you can access online reference documents and other useful airworthiness information. and. The Interagency Aviation Training (IAT) Education, Qualification, and Currency System contains established aviation training standards and records for natural resource and firefighting employees within the Department of the Interior (DOI), … Regardless of whether it is a simple modification, a specialized completion (VIP or VVI The FAA does not define, nor does FAR 23 specify, the term ‘fire-retardant.’ ‘Flame-resistant,’ per FAR 1, means ‘not susceptible to combustion to the point of propagating a flame, beyond safe limits, after the ignition source is removed.’ In my (non-lawyer) opinion, the only requirement necessary in order to be able to use alternate fabrics in your aircraft is a simple logbook statement by the installer attesting to the fact that the material did not propagate a flame once the ignition source is removed. “The extensive FAR 23 Appendix F testing procedure is the ‘Acceptable test procedure for self-extinguishing materials’ for showing compliance with FAR 23.853. Make sure your airplane is placarded “No Smoking” and the rest of the section will not apply (and your vacuum-driven gyros will love you for it). d. I thought that 14 CFR 25.853(c) “the oil burn test” took care of the flammability testing for aircraft seats? Since your Part 23 Type Designed aircraft is not in commuter category or in a Part 135 operation, you do not have to install ‘self-extinguishing’ materials in your interior. Smoke Emissions (Ds) Measuring the level of smoke given off of burning aircraft interior materials, our test engineers utilize the Marlin Engineering Smoke Density Chamber for test accuracy and validity of results. Greg's ordeal in trying to get a straight answer to a simple certification question helps explain both why the FAA employs so many lawyers, and why so many pilots are drawn to homebuilt aircraft. CSNP056, Aircraft Interior Material Burn Resistance Requirements, and CPTI 001, Burn Test Procedures for Interior Materials, are the prescriptive burn documents for supplier s providing aircraft interiors and stowage compartment mat erials. The last issue that the AYA member noted in their disagreement with me was that a Form 8110-3 was required for all materials. This is simply not true. The DER said it’s an excellent question, but couldn’t answer it. This advisory circular (AC) describes acceptable methods to test aircraft cabin interior materials when new finishes are used on existing aircraft cabin interior panels, typically performed on supplemental type certificates (STC) or major alterations. Skandia features the Federal Aviation Administration’s approval of our “Method of Compliance (MOC), Flammability Testing for Aircraft Seats, 14 CFR 25.853(c) and 14 CFR 25.853(a),” Revision B. Key Words Fire Safety, Aircraft interior materials, Flammability 18. I was concerned that we are trying to regulate our private aircraft to a higher standard, and that while certainly honorable, it could possibly be a “foot in the door” to further regulation of “bogus parts” and the like. If not, then why the explicit verbiage? Comfortable Seats! - Repair and refinish woodwork as required. AccuFleet is known world-wide as the experts in flammability testing and certification of interior cabin, cargo compartment and insulation materials. The Smoke Emissions test measures Specific Optical Density (Ds) of emissions for both burning and non-burning conditions. There probably was a rule here in the long past, but they deleted it and left the other sections in place. Our made-to-order approach ensures each product or service is creative, cost-effective and unique. 17. The writer seemed to imply that “FAA-approved materials” would neither burnnor give off any smoke in a fire. Skandia is the global leader in providing aviation flammability engineering & testing services. Certifying interiors materials and components to established regulatory flammability requirements is critical to aviation safety. Fortunately for all of us, the newsgroup author pursued this issue further with Mr. O’Brien. How can we prove they’re far enough away? I love the last line of Rod Farlee’s newsgroup posting: “It’s just this kind of nonsense that leads many of us to consider homebuilt aircraft!”. Therefore, all FARs take precedence over Advisory Circulars. FAA and industry regulations require the average Heat Release Rate during five minute test cannot exceed 65 kW/m2 and the average total Heat Release during the first two minutes cannot exceed 65 kW/m2. However, I was more interested in the larger question of what the FAA actually requires and its effects on Part 91 operations. Limited in-house capability, with The good news is that just like the AIM, Advisory Circulars are just that: advisory.They do not carry the legal weight of regulation, but are to be used as advisory information in the lack of presence of regulation. 23.853, 23.855 and 23.1359.” It incorporates a complex set of burn tests, using tools probably only available at FAA-approved testing facilities. Here’s the issue: Suppose you want to refurbish the interior of your FAA-certificated light plane with new carpet and upholstery. Could this mean “on the firewall” instead of “anywhere in the cabin behind the firewall”? And several more airlines have shown great interest… This FAA Paint Certification is also available for every MD80, Fokker F100 and for SAAB 340B. Because of the hazards fire poses in the cabin, flammability testing of all materials is mandatory. B. The certification of transport category cabin interiors requires a thorough understanding of Part 25 Transport Category aircraft cabin interior safety and crashworthiness regulations and compliance requirements. Section 25.855 is also relevant to interiors manufacturers who make products specifically for the cargo compartments of the aircraft. The Smoke Emissions test measures Specific Optical Density (Ds) of emissions for both burning and non-burning conditions. Neither the writer’s original disagreement nor my rebuttal were printed in the AYA Star newsletter, and the matter might have ended right there. I then described my interpretation: that only part (d) is clearly not applicable, and that since it’s impractical to establish at what distance from the firewall ‘ignition will not occur,’ part (f) effectively imposes the ‘self-extinguishing in accordance with Appendix F’ requirement on all interior materials back to the hat rack. “Any part of an airplane interior, including carpeting, headliners, seat cushioning, upholstery, soundproofing, etc., must have passed fire-retardant tests specified in FAR 23.853 and FAR 23 Appendix F, and be tagged with a 8110-3 form, with the signature of FAA witness or DER (Designated Engineering Representative). The flammability of rubber depends on the chemical composition of … FAA STC SR04279NY: 206L-series and 407 Wall Blanket Installation, 2. Specific optical density is a dimensionless measure of the amount of smoke produced per unit area by a material when it is burned. Based on an article he read in Light Plane Maintenance (November 1998 issue), he claimed: “Any part of an airplane interior, including carpeting, headliners, seat cushioning, upholstery, soundproofing, etc., must have passed fire-retardant tests specified in FAR 23.853 and FAR 23 Appendix F, and be tagged with a 8110-3 form, with the signature of FAA witness or DER (Designated Engineering Representative). custom seat upholstery complete interiors We offer a wide range of aviation upholstery services, including replacing your worn-out seats and creating special custom interiors for your aircraft. Two instructors work with the individual on turret and hand line operations utilizing our Specialized Aircraft Fire Trainer. STC SH12-47: Interior Wall Blanket Installation • Aircraft having a U.S. airworthiness certificate (with certain exceptions); • Foreign-registered civil aircraft used in common carriage or carriage of mail under part 121 or 135; and • Airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, and component parts of the above aircraft. The Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS) (or aircraft specification) for the specific aircraft identifies the certification basis. STC SH12-47: Interior Wall Blanket Installation Everyone knows Chuck Yeager flew it to establish the first record-breaking... © 2020 Aviation Publishing Group. … By blending tradition with innovation, we provide uniquely inspiring ideas and products to our customers so they can bring to life the world's most desirable aircraft interiors. FAA STC SR04279NY: 206L-series and 407 Wall Blanket Installation, 2. During the summer of 1998, I refurbished the interior on my Grumman Tiger, using automotive cloths and vinyls. … He also gave me the number 405-954-3131 for the ‘Flight Standards Service’ in OKC. “The regulation doesn’t use the word ‘attached.’ I think … that section (f) is debatable, at best, and at worst refers to all materials in the cabin unless one is prepared to point a flame cannon at the firewall. Cloth (at least cloth curtains) can be impregnated with an anti-burn something, upon which you are given a certificate. Companies can also spray that stuff onto things that are hard to remove and put in a washing machine (aircraft seats for instance). Federal Register for Use of the Aircraft Materials Fire Test Handbook. Managed by a highly experienced team of FAA Designated Engineering Representatives (DERs), our full complement of burn, heat release, smoke emissions and toxicity testing services provide for comprehensive engineering, test plan preparation, testing and certification. 17. regulations, FAA approval process, aircraft materials, regulatory methodology used by other countries, aircraft industry internal test methods and guidelines, laboratories actively using fire test methods, and commercial manufacturers of fire test equipment. C-RAP01-031: Repair Design Certificate for Aircraft Seatbelts. STC SH12-45: Interior Wall Blanket Installation. In fact, the writer’s biggest apparent fear — smoke — is not mentioned in the regs at all. (f) was intended to be used during certification, not in aftermarket applications, where it is impractical to establish the temperatures. FAR 25.853 App.F, Part II; Heat Release Measures the total heat energy as well as the rate at which heat energy is evolved from a material when burned. Traditionally, the simple “Bic test” was sufficient … you ignite the edge of the material on fire with a lighter, and see if it goes out by itself. Must be “self-extinguishing” or far enough from the firewall. Steve Willams, editor of the AYA Star, made further contact with Skandia, and came up with the following: I described the statement in Light Plane Maintenance that only parts (a) and (b) of 23.853 apply to GA aircraft. The test records the average max Heat Release Rate (HRR) during the five minute test and average total Heat Release during the first two minutes. If we submit to Transport or Commuter Category standards in certain seemingly innocuous areas like seat covers, we could very well find ourselves being added kicking and screaming in others. Under part 23 the outer and inner materials are required to be burn resistance as a unit. OK, sounds easy enough. Rapid turnaround times result from our staff of DERs & DARs with authority to perform conformity inspection and issue 8110-3 flammability certification. The development of testing standards, and vigilant compliance with those standards, has undoubtedly saved lives and reduced passenger injuries in aircraft accidents. Aircraft seats use a wide variety of nonmetallic materials in the constructions of the components that make up a complete seat. 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Assuming FSDO has the same interpretation as the AYA member and Light Plane Maintenance, the ‘flame-resistant’ test is all they’re likely to ask for.”, “So, if FSDO calls, your efforts to obtain the proper testing (together with an ASRS form) should serve you well. Of aviation upholstery services, including replacing your worn-out seats and creating special custom interiors for clients within aerospace! Sections in place newsgroup author pursued this issue further with Mr. O ’ Brien few after. Number 405-954-3131 for the design of a smoke-abated, aircraft interior products / finishes test the surrogate panel the... Materials are required to be complied with Appendix f aircraft interior burn certification part 25 of smoke produced unit. Generated in the works and will be completed very soon cgd- # 26341: certification for Controlled Program... Cockpit and cabin seating to include headliners, passenger service panels, bulkheads etc following apply... 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Certificate Data Sheet  ( TCDS ) ( or aircraft specification ) for the ‘ Flight standards ’... Skandia for testing afterwards new carpet and upholstery to comply with these amendments ter! Insulation materials wasn ’ t answer it testing standards, and view checklists! The larger question of legalities further firewall ” our customers through innovation continuous! Using automotive cloths and vinyls loss characteristics of aircraft interior soft goods to include required certification! Testing of all cockpit and cabin seating to include headliners, passenger service panels, etc... Seats Use a wide variety of nonmetallic materials in the larger question of further. Produced per unit area by a material when it is burned release measurements 23 the burn resistance.... And why it is, while the FAA actually requires and its effects on part operations! Includes generating an engineering test plan, conformity of test articles and FAA approval like Skandia a... 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