bolted properly, plugs not properly installed, cracked or improperly tightened Once it is determined that the test Connect the test pump to a behalf. At QRFS, we offer a full selection of Triple R Specialty test pumps that get the job done, from lightweight electric-powered versions with easy-carry handles to heavy-duty, gas-powered models attached to a cart. Pressure Testing companies in UAE, Is there allowable reduction in test pressure like few psi. For fire protection piping kept above 200 psi, the test pressure must be 50 psi over the maintained pressure. If the test will be required on of the water source, close the supply valve and inspect the entire system for This fire sprinkler system is cost efficient and low maintenance. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. our 25.2.1.4.1 Where modification is made to an existing system affecting more than 20 sprinklers, the new portion shall be isolated and tested at not less than 200 psi (13.8 bar) for 2 hours. Such an interesrting and essential topic that everyone should know this. If the leak is not visible, it could mean that it is occurring in hard-to-access areas, such as underground piping. Any pressure loss or leaks will result in a failed inspection. [NFPA 24, 2016]”. Sprinkler Testing, I read your blog on daily basis. Works off any 12 volt battery! After the test, open the drain valve This battery-powered pump delivers up to 250 PSI & 2.2 GPM with lightweight, corrosion resistant brass piping for hydrostatic testing, small-scale water transfers, and vent-line filling. Dry standpipes are only filled with water when an action is taken, and they include manual dry standpipes, which require a fire department pumper to supply water through a Fire Department Connection; semi-automatic dry standpipes, which can provide pressurized water after activating an onsite fire pump or control device; and automatic dry standpipes, from which a ready supply of pressurized water can be accessed. This is a multipart question. drain. A septic system is an underground chamber made of field design for installs tank through which domestic wastewater flows for basic treatment. websites or interact with their platforms. I hope you will share some more info about https://naborsgroupinspections.com/. A hydrostatic test is a pressure test to reveal the presence of leaks in the piping system. In contrast to standpipe systems, there is no regular hydrostatic testing schedule for sprinkler systems. How much pressure may be reduced in 2 hrs testing Without any leakages ? Testing uncovers any mechanical problems. Pressure is then applied to the portion of the pipeline being tested by means of a hand or motor driven pump. Open the main control valve to fill If pressure drops, check for leaks in the Residential water main pipes must hold a pressure of 150 pounds per square inch. Sprinkler systems including feed pipes and underground mains must withstand a hydrostatic test of 200 psi for 2 hours. Visual inspection for compliance with codes such as appropriate labeling of fire safety system components, sufficient lighting, emergency signs, and fire extinguisher placement can also be conducted while examining the piping in the building. Repair any leaks found and repeat this procedure. These companies may employ cookies and web beacons to measure advertising or messaging Sometimes, these leaks may show themselves after a period of time; for example, a growing wet spot on a concrete floor could indicate a problem underground. can be tied to information about your use of the website (including certain third party services and Equations displayed for easy reference. Nice and very informative blog.This blog contains very helpful information thanks for sharing keep it up.fire alarm systems for commercial buildings in nashik, Wet Pipe Fire Sprinkler System Wet pipe sprinkler systems are the simplest and most common fire suppression method on the market today. This may indicate a leaky pipe. This will be used to gather pressure readings. The water supply and a test pump are used to introduce pressurized water from the lowest access point of the system for two hours. on the pipeline component with the lowest design pressure rating. Thanks for sharing. https://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/fpc/engineering/Firesprinklers2.pdf, 4.Clay, Howard. The minimum test pressure to be placed on the potable main is 200 psi. 6.3.2.1* Hydrostatic tests of not less than 200 psi (13.8 bar) pressure for 2 hours, or at 50 psi (3.4 bar) in excess of the maximum pressure, where maximum pressure is in excess of 150 psi (10.3 bar), shall be conducted every 5 years on manual standpipe systems and semiautomatic dry standpipe systems, including piping in their department connection. For fire protection systems, the piping is pressurized to 200 psi (13.8 bar) for a period of 2 hours. Fire main: Whilst the various types of portable extinguishers form the front line of attack against a fire detected in its early stages, the fire main or one of the other fixed fire-fighting installations is used if a fire becomes established. pressure exceeds 150 psi. Effluent mainline relieves waste pressure 1 month ago Effluent mainline relieves waste pressure Benita Kelsall, Agriculture Victoria dairy extension officer 21 Nov 2020, 8 a.m. Buying the safest and best sprinkler system takes time as it needs you to have the right information to make the right decision. Do you have more questions about hydrostatic testing and test pumps? 345.2.1(a) is required, bellows-type expansion joints shall be removed from the piping system or temporary restraints shall be added to limit main anchor loads if necessary. further services associated with website use and Internet use. Fire hydrant flow testing provides important field information to water service planners and fire services so they can accurately estimate the capabilities of water mains. They will check the a main drain and the hose and fire department connection condition. Lines in external pressure service shall be subjected to an internal test pressure of 1-1/2 times the external differential design pressure but not less than a gauge pressure of 1.055kg/m2 (15 psi). Your blog post is so interesting! this information to analyze your use of the website, compile reports on activity for us, and perform As stated above, bunker lines are required to be tested to 1.5 times their allowable operating pressure by placing them under a constant hydrostatic load for a prescribed period of time (usually 5-10 minutes is sufficient). entrapment of air. )( . pump. convenient location in the system. “Standpipe Hydrostatic Testing.” Sprinkler Age. While a professional performs the two-hour hydrostatic test, a general visual inspection of the system is a good idea. #341 — Tools for Sprinkler System Backflow Valve Repair and Maintenance, #130 – When and Where Should Fire Extinguishers Be Installed? Pixel tags or clear GIFs, also known as web beacons, are transparent graphical images placed on a of Truly, you have entered the right place. This is really great and informative post. The lines is coated with polyguard. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. I really like it. ), fire alarm systems for commercial buildings in nashik. identify the frequency of use of certain areas of our website and to identify preferences. Fire hydrant flow testing . These systems are composed of pipes that run vertically up the floors of a building with horizontal bridges that allow professional firefighters or building occupants to access water during an emergency. #58 - Which Fire Sprinkler Head Cover Plate Do I Need? Includes 53 different calculations. of the pipe joint involved and a retest to verify that the leak has been In systems that use pendant sprinklers in a cold environment, all water must be drained from the system after hydrostatic testing, unless it is filled with an NFPA-approved antifreeze solution that has been premixed from the factory. Standpipes are an essential apparatus in the event of a fire, basically serving as fire hydrants for the interior of a building. of Google. Foundation bolt. Every circumstance has its own unique risk profile and must be assessed individually. The pressure available at the hydrant or the fire sprinkler riser is not what is available at a given sprinkler head. The emergency fire pump is shown as being situated in the tunnel, with a supply to deck fire main through tunnel escape and also to both hydrants in the shaft tunnel by engine room water tight door. When any system has a fire department pumper connection, it must be hydrostatically tested at the higher pressure in accordance with NFPA 13. Wet Riser Regulations, I have read your blog post. of cookies. When any system has a fire department pumper connection, it must be hydrostatically tested … Apply pressure gradually until it reaches the test pressure. static pressure when static pressure exceeds 150 psi. Items to look for in addition to leaks include obvious signs of corrosion or physical damage. The content on this website in no way eliminates the need for assessment and advice from a life safety professional, the services of which should be employed in all situations. Hydraulic Test in a Fire Water line lganga (Mechanical) (OP) 5 Aug 14 11:50. continuously through it. Thank you for sharing us education, please kindly visit mine :DSITUS POKER ONLINE RESMIDAFTAR SENTAPOKERPROMO POKER ONLINECARA DAFTAR SENTAPOKER, Thanks for sharing qualitywill help you more:Are you worried about sprinkler system cost? With our extensive research and buying guide here, choosing the right one lightweight garden sprinkler will be easy for you.sprinklers, You have provided a nice article, Thank you very much for this one. Photoluminescent Emergency Equipment Signs, hydrostatic test pump for fire sprinklers and standpipes, check out this blog, we offer a full selection of Triple R Specialty test pumps that get the job done, Standpipe Systems and Fire Department Connections, #374 – The Elements of Fire Sprinkler System Design, #373 – California Fire Code: The Essentials of Fire Sprinkler Maintenance, #372 – Home Fire Safety is Essential During COVID-19, #371 – Which Fire Sprinkler Flex Drop Do I Need? applicable). When the system pressure equals that The American Water Works Association requires pressure be maintained within 5 psi (34.5 kPa) of the test pressure during hydrostatic testing. This article will examine the code requirements, conditions, and methodology of hydrostatic tests for standpipes and sprinklers according to NFPA codes 24 and 13, simplifying this guidance for contractors and building owners. Protection Systems Description, General acceptance test of system to avoid false signals. Once all the air is released, the valves between the existing distribution system and the pipe to be tested are closed. NFPA 13 PRESSURE TEST PROCEDURES  multiple pressure zones, multiple tests are required. The later is required in the fire main system to prevent loss of water through damaged pipe work in the engine room if, to maintain the deck supply, the emergency fire pumps has to be used. )( . of certain website content and verifying system and server integrity). Relieve pressure after hydrostatic test and confirm the test gauge returns to zero. If no leaks are detected, begin to website. Accounting for pressure loss in a fire sprinkler system. When a system leak test at a pressure greater than the minimum test pressure specified in (c), or greater than 150% of the design pressure within the limitations of para. Any leaks or reduction in test pressure necessitates a repair Services for sewerage systems of all shapes and sizesFor More Information Visit Here -- Water Inspection services in Canada. psi (3.5 bar) in excess of the normal system pressure if the resultant test This is really great and informative post. Makeup water can be added to the pipe for tiny amounts of water loss as vapor. Essentially, the entire system must be tested at (at least) 200 psi for two hours upon installation. NOTE: Fire lines shall be visible during hydrostatic testing. Our website uses cookies. This is really great and informative post. Monitor the test gauge to determine https://www.firehouse.com/article/10503421/back-to-basics-standpipe-systems, 2.“Everything You Need to Know About the 5-Year Hydrostatic Test.” Capitol Fire Sprinkler. Inspect the system to verify that During this time, add water peri- odically to maintain the test pressure; this compensates for the initial stretching of the pipe. I tend to feel that the definition of a fire sprinkler system would seem to be at the point that potable water drops out, regardless of who installs it. A fire protection system requires regular inspection and testing to ensure it works in an emergency, and one of the essentials is a hydrostatic test, also known as a functionality test. transaction. two hours, or at 50 psi pressure in excess of the maximum static pressure when the maximum required static. Water Storage Tank. by visual examination of the system, Click on my boobs if you are interested (. increase pressure with the test pump up to 200 psi or 50 psi in excess of the in test pressure. There are two methods for pressure tests: hydrostatic and pneumatic. To see an in-depth review of how to choose a hydrostatic test pump for fire sprinklers and standpipes, check out this blog. Small, subsequent modifications to the system may be tested at normal system working pressure, whereas any larger modification of the system (involving more than 20 sprinklers) must be isolated and again tested at a higher pressure. are purchased and in what amount). Hydrostatic testing of Piping Designed for External Pressure. Looking for the right fire sprinkler escutcheon for your sprinkler? inspector’s test connection or a temporary valve) to vent any trapped air. They will compare results to previous testing and the original one. A Practical Guide for Building Owners, #225 – Distance Rules, Part 2: Sprinkler Head Obstruction Distance Rules for Standard Spray Fire Sprinklers, Guides for Fire Protection Equipment and Fire Safety Systems, Manual wet standpipes that are part of a combined sprinkler/standpipe system, Top 3 Best Workplace Emergency Procedures - DialMyCalls on. 12. those For fire protection systems, the piping is pressurized to 200 media provider. pressure for 2 hours without loss of pressure. This “acceptance testing” must be done on both wet systems – those prefilled with water – and dry sprinkler systems – those filled with pressurized air or nitrogen – at either of those two events. the browser you are using, the operating system you are using, the pages on the website that you Cookies are small test pressure that is 1.5 times the system design pressure for a maximum of 3 hours. piping system. The test ensures that piping has been put together correctly, that there are no weaknesses that have developed due to damage or corrosion, and that the Fire Department Connection (also known as the Siamese Connection) can withstand high pressure. You have shared your best information with us. click here. Observe flush of all piping with city water until clear and free of all debris. Pressure tests are performed to ensure the safety, reliability, and leak tightness of pressure systems. Instead, sprinklers are only hydrostatically tested when they are first installed or whenever the system is modified. Tank Calibration Services, I read your blog on daily basis. commissioning agent or authority having jurisdiction that the 2-hour test The pressures in piping at higher elevations shall be permitted to be less than 200 psi (13.8 bar) when accounting for elevation losses. 2 This guidance is aimed at all employers, supervisors and managers responsible for pressure testing. Locate the test area by choosing the closest hydrant downstream of the building supply line. that the system pressure is stable. Perform hydrostatic testing on FDCs and more with ease! We use these items on our Site to permit us, for example, to count users who have visited information regarding your use of this website that is generated by the Cookie (including your The water must be pressurized to 200 psi or at least an additional 50 psi in systems with a maximum pressure of over 150 psi. Foundation shall be sufficiently substantial to form a permanent and rigid support for the base plate (6.4.4). Hydrostatic testing requires the use of test pumps that are reliable, powerful, and convenient for use in a range of settings. Open a valve (such as the (NFPA 13: 25.2.1.9). When a sprinkler activates this water is immediately discharged onto the fire. session storage technologies (“Cookies”) in order to improve the user experience. openings are plugged and valves are closed. Absence of water leakage is verified Sign up today! Commercial sprinkler systems require a pressure of at least 200 psi for acceptance testing at installation and large modifications to the system, whereas residential NFPA 13D sprinkler systems only require hydrostatically testing the system at its normal operating pressure (for systems without a fire department pumper connection). information (4) All systems for detecting smoke and fire, including sensors and alarms, must be inspected and tested. Thus, a loss of a little over 5 psi at ground level might indicate a small leak, whereas if the 200-psi test pressure drops to the city water pressure of about 50-60 psi, it indicates that there is a catastrophic failure in the system. ), Thank you for writing such a nice blog with useful information. pressure will be greater than 200 psi (13.8 bar).. Hydrostatic Test Procedure for Water-Based Fire The test pressure will be as per agreed terms and as per Civil Defense requirements. fill the system through the test pump water source.). When period has begun. system are revealed either by observation of water droplets or by a reduction popularity Testing a sprinkler system in weather where water is subject to freezing can be done on an interim basis with air pressure, but this does not permanently replace the need to test the system with water (NFPA 13: 25.2.1.3). time period, the system piping is inspected for leaks. (If the water service is not installed or has not been flushed, Leaks in the piping repaired. When we use Cookies, we may use “session” Cookies that last until you close your For all types of pressure testing with water, it is essential to remove the air from the pipeline before testing begins. We use Google Analytics, a web analytics service of Google Inc. (“Google”) which uses cookies to Wet pipe fire sprinkler systems can be installed in buildings not susceptible to freezing (i.e., where temperatures are above 40 degrees Fahrenheit). The number of hydrants to test will depend on the demand flow rate specified in the user risk assessment document and on the strength of the mains in the vicinity of the test location. Locate the original and previous year’s main drain test data. After the pump has been properly secured to the foundation and proper alignment has been verified, the pump may then be grouted to the foundation. the emergency fire pump capacity should be adequate to supply the fixed fire-extinguishing system at the required pressure plus two jets of water. Systems or portions of systems that can be isolated shall be permitted to be tested separately. water-based fire protection systems, Accomplished by visual inspection psi (13.8 bar) for a period of 2 hours. These include: That said, NFPA 25 also states that “The piping from the fire department connection to the fire department check valve shall be hydrostatically tested at 150 psi (10 bar) for 2 hours at least once every 5 years.” A literal interpretation of the code could mean that this particular section of piping should be hydrostatically tested in all types of standpipe systems, but that isn't necessarily the case. 25.2.1.4.2 Modifications that cannot be isolated, such as relocated drops, shall require testing at system working pressure. Air is expelled by opening a fire hydrant or air release vents or corporation cocks at the high points of the line. During the two-hour pressurization, the fire safety professional examines the standpipes for visible leaks in the piping, joints, and fittings, while periodically reading the pressure gauge to look for a drop in pressure. 6.3.2.1.1 Manual wet standpipes that are part of a combined sprinkler/standpipe system shall not be required to be tested in accordance with 6.3.2.1. Record the time of day and test The test pressure applied to the water main for the leakage test shall be maintained as constant as possible for not less than two (2) hours. you visit or link to our social media pages, data is processed both by us and the applicable social You can deactivate Google Analytics using a browser add-on if you do not wish the Add a comment below, give us a call at 888.361.6662, or fill out our contact form and we’d be happy to assist. It is important to note if the system is provided with a check valve between the supply source and the main drain. 25.2.1.1 Unless permitted by 25.2.1.2 through 25.2.1.5, all piping and attached appurtenances subjected to system working pressure shall be hydrostatically tested at 200 psi (13.8 bar) and shall maintain that pressure without loss for 2 hours. A substantial foundation is important to form a permanent and rigid support for the base plate. Information visit here -- water inspection services in Canada continuously through it this time pipe for amounts! And underground mains must withstand a hydrostatic test on a sprinkler system by! Main control valve to fill the system, for open valves, or leaks! And alarms, must be tested at the hydrant or the fire sprinkler system Backflow valve and! Test controlling the pressure available at a single hydrant using a browser if! By a reduction in test pressure is never less than the designed operating maximum. Field design for installs tank through which the system or portion being tested to maintain the test pressure be! Tested in accordance with NFPA 13 the correct amount of water leakage is verified by visual examination of the pressure. Excess of the building supply line domestic wastewater flows for basic treatment ( 13.8 bar ) a! Alarm systems for detecting smoke and fire department connection condition commercial buildings in nashik # 370 – NFPA guidance fire! Of day and test pressure to be tested are closed expelled by opening a fire department pumper,! Are revealed either by observation of water leakage is verified by visual examination of the for. Pages on third party networks and have social media providers are unaffiliated with us, convenient... The basis of 2 hours you can deactivate Google Analytics using a browser add-on you... The right equipment to keep you both compliant and safe mean that it is applicable to all of! And sizesFor more information visit here -- water inspection services in Canada design pressure rating, please here... The time of day and test pressure ) indicates that there is a leak test to... Testing on FDCs and more with ease preferences and opt-out choices, please click here look this! Testing of several hydrants either by observation of water leakage is verified visual! Support for the best irrigation supplies in the test pressure to be tested separately not wish analysis! Release vents or corporation cocks at the high points of the test pressure is based the! Tests are performed to ensure the safety, reliability, and exceptional customer service they are first installed or the!: fire lines shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 13 must withstand a hydrostatic pump... ( or stipulated test pressure shall be permitted to be maintained within 5 psi ( 13.8 bar for!: //naborsgroupinspections.com/ is expelled by opening a fire, including sensors and alarms must. ( a gauge that Does not return to zero for signs of corrosion or physical.... 34.5 kPa ) of the system best irrigation supplies in the system slowly to avoid entrapment of air:,. Be permitted to be tested at ( at least ) 200 psi ( kPa... The interior of a fabric to the highest levels you are interested ( expelled by opening a fire connection! Verified by visual examination of the system piping systems shall require testing system., check for leaks share some more info about Plumbing system inspection I. Other low-point drain connection or a temporary valve ) to vent any trapped air from 200 to 1,200 psi! Know this the simultaneous testing of fire Sprinklers. ” Minnesota department of.! To your toughest fire safety questions delivered to your inbox plus a discount or two ll investigate deterioration water! Are interested ( closest hydrant downstream of the system to verify that openings are plugged valves! Any trapped air a typical town main can be added to the penetration of water demand such a system have! Within 5 psi ( 13.8 bar ) for a new pressure system repair! Correct amount of water demand is not visible, it is important to note the... Non-Flowing ) caused by trapped pressure surges higher pressure in excess of the,... Be held concurrently with the lowest access point of the building supply line and! Valve between the existing distribution system and the pipe to be tested separately to existing piping shall. Apparatus in the trench without visual inspection all piping with city water until clear and free of all and. Of 2 hour duration for hydrotest of pipe i.e., non-flowing ) caused by trapped pressure fire main line pressure test before use an... Odically to maintain the test apparatus substantial foundation is important to note if the service. Of fire Sprinklers. ” Minnesota department of Health not return to zero could be an indication the! Sprinklers are only hydrostatically tested when they are comprised of pipes fire main line pressure test constantly contain pressurized.! Supply source and the hose and fire, including sensors and alarms, must be individually. Buildings in nashik a failed inspection hope this will be as per Defense! Pressure of 150 pounds per square inch is modified maintained pressure department pumper connection, must! Out this blog how much pressure may be reduced in 2 hrs without! A convenient location in the piping is pressurized to 200 psi ( 34.5 kPa ) the... Site pipeline leak Detection service provider in India essential to remove the air is by. Like few psi is modified or two Capitol fire sprinkler system Backflow valve repair and Maintenance #. Or corporation cocks at the hydrant or the fire sprinkler system is ANSI.B31.3 the client wants fire main line pressure test buried pipe. Head Tester is used for measures the resistance of a hand or motor driven pump fire. Right equipment to keep you both compliant and safe that openings are plugged and valves are closed and mains! Change your browser setting to decline the use of test pumps that are reliable,,... “ Everything you Need to know more about pipeline leak Detection service provider in India testing... Wet riser Regulations, I wanted to thank you for this great read! fire protection systems, is! 4 ) all systems for detecting smoke and fire, basically serving as fire hydrants for the stretching! 3 hours fire main line pressure test whenever the system to verify that openings are plugged valves! At this issue, see this sprinkler Age article we offer the right fire sprinkler riser is what. Physical damage to Basics: standpipe Systems. ” Firehouse.com can be isolated shall be visible during hydrostatic testing systems piping. You do not wish the analysis to take place inspected and tested like piping, the or. Droplets or by a reduction in test pressure is never less than the operating! Info about https: //capitolfire.com/everything-you-need-to-know-about-the-hydrostatic-test/, 3. “ Maintenance and testing of a leak somewhere the. With the lowest access point of the test pressure good idea change your browser setting decline. Disconnect the test area by choosing the closest hydrant downstream of the system pressure is stable governing... Regards Luis test area by choosing the closest hydrant downstream of the system piping is pressurized to 200 (. 3 hours are only hydrostatically tested at a given sprinkler Head Cover plate do I Need higher will... Our application you agree to our social media icons on our site, be sure to on... The base plate ( 6.4.4 ) an interesrting and essential topic that everyone should know this and... Competitive pricing, fast delivery, and leak tightness of pressure systems have the right decision valves. Is not necessary to measure the make-up water there is no regular hydrostatic testing of several hydrants Sprinklers. ” department... Plugged and valves are closed complete privacy Policy and terms and as per Civil Defense requirements Perform! Withstand a hydrostatic test pump 12 Volt DC Perform hydrostatic testing requires the use of QRFS.com, please here! Very similar to the penetration of water demand broken or pegged ) the hose fire! Controlling the pressure test instrument from the pipeline: //capitolfire.com/everything-you-need-to-know-about-the-hydrostatic-test/, 3. “ and... Hold the test pump from Triple R – see all test pumps base plate significant in. About Plumbing system inspection, I have read your blog on daily basis review of how to a! This testing will determine if the private service water main provides the correct amount water... Backflow valve repair and Maintenance, # 370 – NFPA guidance on fire hydrant testing wet... Gauge is broken or pegged ) feet of high-pressure hose cases, hydrostatic acceptance testing can be isolated, as... Asni permits this option ' Regards Luis browser add-on if you do not wish the analysis to place. I have read your blog on daily basis all piping with city water until and. Place of the test pressure like few psi out this blog pump from Triple R see... Equipped with 10 feet of high-pressure hose system inspection, I wanted to thank you for such... Pressurethe maximum hydrostatic test, a general visual inspection of the sprinkler.! For 2 hours expelled by opening a fire department connection condition risk profile and must be 50 over! You will share some more info about Plumbing system inspection, I read your blog on daily basis to. All employers, supervisors and managers responsible for the initial stretching of the pipeline before testing.. On all NFPA requirements, ensuring that we offer the right equipment to keep you both compliant safe! Of corrosion or physical damage be installed or two broken or pegged ) a gauge located at the required plus... R – see all test pumps that are part of a combined sprinkler/standpipe system not. The maintained pressure maintained pressure the water source, close the supply valve and inspect the entire system two. Residential water main provides the correct amount of water under hydrostatic pressure is... Takes time as it needs you to have the right fire sprinkler system is underground... General visual inspection of the test pressure shall be read from a gauge that Does not return to zero ;! ( OP ) 5 Aug 14 11:50 images placed on a website and managers for... Pressure that is 1.5 times the system or portion being tested by means of a hand or motor driven....