Marcel Pérès Returns for Machaut: Messe de Nostre Dame Marcel Pérès Following his Cappella Romana début in 2012 leading powerful chants from Santiago de Compostela, international early music star Marcel Pérès from Paris directs the earliest known Mass setting by a single composer, Guillaume de Machaut (1300-1377), with chants for Candlemas. He also composed courtly poetry and polyphonic songs that are the clear descendants of the troubadour song of previous centuries. Douce Dame Jolie. He was famous and much-admired when he died in 1377 at his hometown, where he was living as a clerical beneficiary since 1330. Messe de Nostre Dame (Mass of Our Lady) is a polyphonic mass composed before 1365 by the French poet, composer and cleric Guillaume de Machaut (circa 1300-1377). The first thing to understand about the Messe de Notre Dame (often spelled Nostre Dame) is that it has nothing to do with that famous cathedral in Paris. Guillaume de Machaut and Reims: context and meaning in his musical works. (See Robertson, Anne Walters. 2 (April, 1950), pp. a poem not meant to be sung). Jul 2, 2:45 PM. This preoccupation with ordering his oeuvre is reflected in an index to MS A entitled “Vesci l’ordonance que G. de Machaut veut qu’il ait en son livre” (“Here is the order that G. de Machaut wants his book to have”). In his other genres, though, he does not utilize sacred texts. According to Daniel Leech-Wilkinson, Machaut was “the last great poet who was also a composer.” Well into the fifteenth century, Machaut’s poetry was greatly admired and imitated by other poets, including Geoffrey Chaucer. How much of an advantage that is depends largely (I suspect) on the listener’s turn of mind; in any case, the claim in the booklet-notes that this is the closest we will get to actually hearing what Machaut heard leaves me rather sceptical. They are often considered characteristically instrumental, but there is no compelling evidence for that. The recording is gloriously well made within a cathedral ambience, and all of the appropriate chant passages are taken, stretching the five movements of Machaut’s mass out to nearly an hour. According to a rubric found at the Cathedral, it would have likely been performed for the Saturday Lady Mass. While they are somewhat difficult to be sung they are well within the skills of a trained professional singer. Messe De Nostre Dame Le Voir Dit. But these wise musicians are also at one with the novelty and innovative impact which the mass must have made when first sung. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Some scholars hypothesize that contrary to popular belief, Machaut did not actually come to work for the Reims Cathedral until the end of the 1350s, composing the mass as an act of devotion and dedication marking his arrival in the precinct. The Gloria and Credo have no apparent chant basis, although they are stylistically related to one another. Whether or not Machaut’s mass is indeed cyclic is contested; after lengthy debate, musicologists are still deeply divided. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guillaume_de_Machaut. review Messe de Nostre Dame. The Mass got its name because the church was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, AKA “Our Lady” (Notre Dame). His Messe de Nostre Dame is the first complete setting of the Ordinary of the mass by a single composer that has survived. 2. Tempos are slow in an attempt to convey spitiuality, I suppose. Harmonia mundi HMC 90 1590 Rec. Classic Choral Works. “Briefly stated, the problem is that it is a phenomenally exhausting piece to sing straight through without a break, so conductors have tended to alternate voices with instruments, particularly in the longest movements, the Kyrie and the Credo. The voice singing the melody of an organum. Machaut (at right) receiving Nature and three of her children. Ultimately, it’s the perspicacity and skill of Guerber and his singers that makes this recording so successful and satisfying. I’m doing an analysis on this piece for NCEA Lvl 2 set works and I was planning on arguing precisely the subject matter Fallow has responded to. Anthologie sonore 31: AS 74; AS 75; AS 76; AS 77; [Paris]: L'Anthologie Sonore… “Machaut’s ‘Messe Notre-Dame’.” The Musical Quarterly, Vol. Guillaume de Machaut, Machaut also spelled Machault, (born c. 1300, Machault, Fr.—died 1377, Reims), French poet and musician, greatly admired by contemporaries as a master of French versification and regarded as one of the leading French composers of the Ars Nova (q.v.) Guillaume de Machaut (sometimes spelled Machault; c. 1300–April 1377) was a medieval French poet and composer. This ranges from general remarks about poetics and other aesthetic concepts to details about the composition of particular pieces, questions about their fixing and transmission in writing and their realization in sound. The word conductus derives from Latin conducere (to escort), and the conductus was most likely sung while the lectionary was carried from its place of safekeeping to the place from which it was to be read. Want to write anything about this work or composer? A few works exist to commemorate a particular event, such as M18, “Bone Pastor/Bone Pastor/Bone Pastor.” Machaut mostly composed in five genres: the lai, the virelai, the motet, the ballade, and the rondeau. pour quoy virent/Libera me”. Male Voices. Yet as much as an object of beauty and wonder as a rather austere – No, restrained – service. (Classical.net). in bars 16, 33, 76, 99,130 &146 of the credo in modern scores) that seemed to, if not directly support the idea of instrumental interludes, at least suggest the possibility of such. : 2010 review Messe de Nostre Dame. Rec. A night of powerfully spiritual music, featuring Machaut’s “Messe de Nostre Dame” arranged by Less Than <10 technologist and composer Nathan Nokes, as well as the Chaconne from Bach’s D Minor Partita performed by the Austin Chamber … 65 Mass / Requiem Play. His unique oeuvre, contained, thanks to the composer’s own efforts, in manuscripts that include only his works, stands in many respects for itself: in terms of its volume, its poetic and compositional formulation and quality, but also in the number of genres in whose development Machaut played a crucial role. : 1990 68, No. Songwriter. “Performing Machaut’s Mass on Record”. In the compilation and ordering of his works as well as in the testimony of the texts themselves there is a wealth of information about Machaut’s self-awareness and about the production of his works and manuscripts. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Duration 14'. As much gentle and yet lavish breath as unselfconscious poise. Hildegard of Bingen was a playwright, poet, naturalist, pharmacologist, abbess, and spiritual visionary as well as a composer. His poem Le voir dit (probably 1361–1365) purports to recount a late love affair with a 19-year-old girl, Péronne d’Armentières, although the accuracy of the work as autobiography is contested. : 1996 The top two voices in these three-part compositions, in contrast, sing secular French texts, creating interesting concordances between the sacred and secular. And if you have access to a good library you can find these additional articles – (however, there are scores of others documenting the same fact): Edmund A. Bowles. “Were Musical Instruments Used in the Liturgical Service during the Middle Ages?”. Messe de Nostre Dame Diabolus in Musica/Antoine Guerber Alpha Productions ALPHA132 Machaut's elegant and glorious Notre ... Perhaps because this is the first complete polyphonic mass known to have been the work of one composer and preserved in its entirety. : 2008Perhaps because this is the first complete polyphonic mass known to have been the work of one composer and preserved in its entirety. This recording of Ensemble Organum in Guillaume de Machaut’s Messe de Notre-Dame — a pivotal piece, as it is the earliest complete polyphonic mass setting by a named Western composer of prominence — was destined to enter the field as one of the most controversial early music recordings ever. Three other similarly compiled masses from the 13th and early 14th century survive: the Toulouse Mass, Barcelona Mass, and Sorbonne Mass (also known as the Besançon Mass). The Musical Times, Vol. In the liturgy of the Mass, the items of the Ordinary are not performed consecutively, but are separated from one another by prayers and chants. Mais ce tenray que je vous ay promis, Also adding weight to the claim that the mass is cyclic is the possibility that the piece was written or assembled for performance at a specific celebration. Oxford Music Online. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. It’s also an amazingly evocative, delicate and beautiful work, which benefits from an idiomatic approach and one equally light of touch. Machaut composed in a wide range of styles and forms. ( Log Out /  By 1340, Machaut was living in Reims, having relinquished his other canonic posts at the request of Pope Benedict XII. He served as a high-ranking church official in the service of various kings and nobles. When he died in 1377, other composers such as François Andrieu wrote elegies lamenting his death. The celebrity of the Messe de Nostre Dame probably owes much to its place in musical history as the first extant complete mass setting by a single composer. He also worked in the polyphonic forms of the ballade and rondeau and wrote the first complete setting of the Ordinary of the Mass which can be attributed to a single composer. The Hilliard Ensemble – Paul Hillier, dir. Messe de Nostre Dame. Alpha 132 Precisely analogous figures appear in these voices (and in the other two voices) elsewhere in both movements at points where all editors have agreed on a fully vocal homophonic rendering; moreover the text underlay, which is reasonably precise in the manuscripts, does not stop at those sections. Figure 1. An example of this kind of scribally-created cycle is the Tournai Mass, so called from its appearance in a manuscript now in Tournai. As is usual, Paul Hilliard presents the music in a one-voice-to-a-part setting, and flawless singing. The composer’s intention that the piece be performed as one entire mass setting makes the Messe de Nostre Dame generally considered a cyclic composition. But the inclusion of instruments is not something that would have been done in Machaut’s time, and I am against the practice. I prefer all male ensembles, singing one voice to a part, and this is not that kind of group. 3 (Jul., 1982), pp. In these genres, Machaut retained the basic formes fixes, but often utilized creative text setting and cadences. The fame of the Messe de Nostre Dame has tended to obscure Machaut's secular works; his songs are his most characteristic pieces. Read Full Biography. Guillaume de Machaut, sometimes spelt Machault (c.1300–1377), was an important mediaeval French poet and composer. Machaut is an extremely significant composer who was equally comfortable in sacred and secular worlds. Yet without drawing any teeth: the singers in Diabolus in Musica are real individuals performing as such. Thank you. Machaut’s Mass, probably written in the early 1360s, was connected with the Reims celebration and on the death of his brother it was transformed into a memorial mass. 204–224). This musician was a composer of the Notre Dame school: Pérotin. Before 1365 Language Latin Guillaume de Machaut is the most important poet and composer of the 14th century, with a lasting history of influence. Vie amoureuse et joie a Dieu commant. Change ), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Machaut’s Messe de Nostre Dame : an overview, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/51865, http://machaut.weebly.com/the-messe-de-nostre-dame.html>, Follow Musica Kaleidoskopea on WordPress.com. IGM 6 Movements/Sections Mov'ts/Sec's: 6 sections Year/Date of Composition Y/D of Comp. Guillaume de Machaut was born about 1300, and educated in the region around Reims. true. No. Sometimes, a scribe would copy together a pair of musically-related movements (usually Gloria-Credo or Sanctus-Agnus), or even a complete cycle. "La Messe de Notre Dame" by Guillaume de Machaut is one of the earliest settings of the Mass by a single composer.The Oxford Camerata,in the Reims cathedral,so the would match the same accoustics as those that must of been heard when the work was first premiered in 1364. the rest of the songs are from "Le voir dit" The liner notes of this recording tell how it was possible to match with … From an illuminated Parisian manuscript of the 1350s. musical style of the 14th century.It is on his shorter poems and his musical compositions that his reputation rests. Some of his lyric output is embedded in his narrative poems or “dits,” such as Le remède de fortune (“The Cure of Ill Fortune”) which includes one of each genre of lyric poetry, and Le voir dit (“A True Story”), but most are included in a separate, unordered section entitled Les loanges des dames. Machaut wrote the Messe de Nostre Dame, the earliest known complete setting of the Ordinary of the Mass attributable to a single composer. In this piece, entitled, Messe de Nostre Dame, he has dedicated his polyphonic composition with intrumental obbligato to Our Lady. View all posts by f. d. leone, “But the inclusion of instruments is not something that would have been done in Machaut’s time, and I am against the practice.”, Do you have any supporting evidence for this rather bold statement? This mass was written during the reign of Pope Urban V, when Charles V was King of France. See below two excerpts from David Fallows. 1. Stylistically it was utterly different from the other principal liturgical polyphonic form of the time, organum, in which the voices usually moved at different speeds; in conductus, the voices sang together, in a style also known as discant. “The So-Called Cyclic Mass of Guillaume de Machaut: New Evidence for an Old Debate.” The Musical Quarterly, Vol. Rec. Marcel Pérès Returns for Machaut: Messe de Nostre Dame Marcel Pérès Following his Cappella Romana début in 2012 leading powerful chants from Santiago de Compostela, international early music star Marcel Pérès from Paris directs the earliest known Mass setting by a single composer, Guillaume de Machaut (1300-1377), with chants for Candlemas. Rec. ( Log Out /  There is ample evidence that instruments other than the organ were not used in sacred music during the 14th century. In Memoriam – Guillaume de Machaut: Messe Notre Dame Oxford University Press. Early Music Vol. The group’s is a direct, intimate and penetrating approach. her mystical compositions. The celebrity of the Messe de Nostre Dame probably owes much to its place in musical history as the first extant complete mass setting by a single composer. Puis qu’en oubli sui de vous, dous amis. Although Hildegard of Bingen was married to Count William of Poitiers, she loved the troubadour Raimbaut d'Orange, for whom she composed numerous chansons. Messe de Notre-Dame de Guillaume de Machaut – Propre grégorien de la messe de l’assomption de la Bienheureuse Vierge Marie Ensemble Gilles Binchois – Dominique Vellard, dir. The tone-quality here is more restrained than Parrott’s. Oxford Camerata – Jeremy Summerly, dir. : 1987 Machaut added a contratenor voice that moved in the same low range as the tenor, sometimes replacing it as the lowest voice. However, a few of Machaut’s rondeaux, such as R18 “Puis qu’en oubli,” are mostly syllabic in treatment. Machaut composed his Messe de Nostre Dame for the Cathedral at Reims where he was a canon, a permanent member of the clergy. The sum quotient is, although we have this mass and can read its notation, we cannot really know what Machaut intended it to sound like; there is not enough support material outside of its sources to tell us that. He is one of the earliest composers on whom significant biographical information is available. Would love to hear back. Machaut’s motets often contain sacred texts in the tenor, such as in M12 “Corde mesto cantando/Helas! 307–323). Cantus firmus. This acoustic enhances the music-making. The Machaut Mass is one of the first surviving and identifiable works by a single composer; this alone would make it of immense value and interest. The Messe de Nostre Dame by Machaut consists of 5 movements, the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei, followed by the dismissal Ite, missa est. And concerning your other point about the untexted sections in the Gloria and Credo movements, these kinds of sections were quite common and similar to phrases referred to as hocket. Andrew Parrott. Although the textures which the ensemble consistently achieves are sonorous, they are neither fanciful, nor over-rich. Before 1365 Language Latin Machaut, Guillaume de (b. Reims, c. 1300; d. there, 13 April 1377). The Galpin Society Journal Vol. All of these masses are anonymous, and musicological scholarship indicates that all of them are compilations of the works of several composers. There have been dozens for recordings of the complete Mass and even more incomplete recordings, but most are out of print today. He was employed as secretary to John I, Count of Luxembourg and King of Bohemia from 1323 to 1346, and also became a canon (1337). There is neither quite the sharpness of Parrott’s account (still my preferred choice), nor the polish of the Hilliard’s reading, nor finally the adventurousness of that of Peres. In the early fourteenth century, settings of Ordinary sections themselves begin to appear. However, as is the case with most English groups,  the stylistic approach may not satisfy everyone, especially those who favor a more grittier sound that arguably might more accurately reflect how the polyphony was put across during Machaut’s period. [See “The Messe de Nostre Dame, Introduction: Music for the Mass in fourteenth-century France”, Website: Guillaume de Machaut (c. 1300-1377), 23 Jan 2017