You will need to water your plants, of course, and supply them with nutrients from an appropriate fertilizer. It’s also used as a protective coating on pelleted seeds. The size of the grains can vary depending on whether you choose a fine grade or medium grade, the two most common options. In case you want the insulation to be rigid through mixing with clay slip, use perlite, this won't take up as much water as vermiculite. Night and day difference on the same stove, much better draft and cleaner chimney with the insulated liner. Vermiculite Vs. Perlite. It is even used to filter beer before it is bottled. Refunds/Returns Policy • A quick note about safety. Then rinse the perlite thoroughly. by Matt Gibson and Erin Marissa Russell . Pros and cons of vermiculite or perlite: Many do-it-yourself pizza oven builders, as well as importers of authentic Italian brick ovens, are big advocates for using vermiculite or perlite mixed with concrete. Thanks for having me. But we use it in our gardens and this is the main use of perlite. Vermiculite concretes can also be produced containing other lightweight aggregates, such as expanded perlite, to give differing physical properties. If you live in a rainy area where you need the soil to dry out. Perlite Vs Vermiculite: The difference between perlite and vermiculite. Perlite is an excellent amendment for clay soil when you want to increase the drainage and aeration of the soil. We hypertufa makers use it as our aggregate in hypertufa. Eliminate surface crusting and puddles in clay soils. Neither medium will rot, deteriorate, or decompose. Good info, thanks branch. Just like vermiculite, perlite is used in construction, insulation, plaster, ceramics, hydroponics, cryogenics. In fact, it can hold 3 to 4 times its volume in water. Incorporate it into the soil to make it less dense. Does Perlite Contain Asbestos?. Re: Vermiculite vs perlite for insulation under the oven floor Hi, I just finished my insulation layer, I had a one gallon bucket and a 2 gallon bucket and used about a 6 to one ratio. However, vermiculite has a higher expansion potential. Vermiculite literally acts as a sponge that will retain water to the point of saturation. Most plants can be grown with success in perlite without anything else added to it. It is added to soil mixes in order to improve the drainage capability of both soil-based and soilless potting mixes. This will create a light and very open structure, improve drainage, aeration, and insulation. I just did a search and you're 100% correct. PERLITE VS VERMICULITE Tests peformed by Dynatherm Engineering reveal that perlite is 6% more eflective as a core fill insulation than vermiculite. For potted plants, use one third perlite and two thirds potting soil. For more information about these uses or other uses for perlite, please contact the Perlite Institute member nearest to you. Let’s get into the details and clear up any confusion you have! They can both hold moisture and improve drainage in soils. If your clay soil could use a boost of organic material, use half perlite and half peat for this process. If you use it, the time between waterings will increase. Perlite vs Vermiculite, Fully Explained. Look for packaging that is labeled “organic.”, Vermiculite can be organic, but it is not always organic. Before you tear open a bag of perlite, you should put on safety glasses and a dust mask to protect your eyes and lungs from the perlite dust. For now, feel free to continue reading. What is Perlite? Vermiculite increases soil’s ability to retain water, letting it hold on to more moisture and stay damp longer. Vermiculite and perlite also differ when it comes to pH level, which may be a consideration when you’re choosing which to add to your soil. Looks like 5 parts vermiculite, one part cement and one part water will do the trick for a 4" slab (multiple batches of course). Thanks in advance for any input. These air cells make perlite an excellent insulator, giving it a high level of thermal resistance. As a naturally occurring mineral, vermiculite is very safe to use. Mel has always been a big fan of vermiculite and thinks that it is far superior to perlite. Perlite is made by breaking apart and super-heating volcanic glass, called obsidian, the result of quickly cooling magma that's come into contact with water. Mineral wool is a popular insulation recommendation, but it seems expensive and has limited supplier options. But casting mortars are usually ready made. The complete soil recipe consists of one third vermiculite, one third compost, and one third peat moss. I crunched the numbers for my chimney and it looks like I need about 32 cu ft of insulation, so even at 15 a bag for the perlite, that's still only $120. It has high water retention and high nutrient retention levels. Your garden soil is too acidic, and you want to bring the pH level close to an alkaline level. Perlite can be processed organically. Contrary to rumor, vermiculite does not contain asbestos and it is not a type of asbestos. I am starting the process of building an Alan Scott wood fired oven. Vermiculite is perfect for plants that enjoy lots of water, such as some irises and forget-me-nots. Comparing pizza ovens made from perlite and vermiculite.Subscribe and help me break 4K Subscribers by the end of the month!About Food RelatedHello! Apparently, there is no insulation difference between vermiculite and perlite. Till or loosen your clay soil to a depth of six to 12 inches, then spread a four-inch layer of perlite across the top. Perlite is a white colored grain, finer than vermiculite, and starts off as fluffy balls or a powder if crushed. It’s a naturally occurring mineral that’s superheated and crushed. Perlite vs Vermiculite. If you are standing in the gardening center, trying to figure out which additive your soil needs the most, wondering what the difference is between perlite and vermiculite, then this article is for you. Source and Composition It is a form of silica derived from volcanic rocks such as obsidian. I'm mixing my own soil and I'm using coco coir, peat, earthworm castings, and compost; however, I'm also using some other light/drainage type stuff. Perlite and vermiculite are used as loose-fill insulation in the construction of modern, insulated masonry wall systems. Perlite facts: Perlite is non-combustible with a service temperature of 1800F. The perlite rock gets crushed and super heated until it pops into a small oval that looks like puffed rice. This will create a light and very open structure, improve drainage, aeration, and insulation. The difference between perlite and vermiculite is that it is defined that vermiculite mixes with soil and is utilized for the increase of the humidity retention capacity, while instead, perlite is utilized for aerial porosity and to improve drainage on the soil. Both of these amendments are mined minerals that can be used for insulation and water filtration. WHAT DOES VERMICULITE DO IN POTTING SOIL? By Vermiculite versus Perlite as thermal insulation materials . Vermiculite and perlite are both non-organic soil additives that are used to aerate the soil. Look for packaging marked “organic.”. Vermiculite aerates soil and increases its ability to retain moisture (holding more water for longer) and retain nutrients, making them more consistently available to your plants. Sandy soil drains well, which means that it will be difficult to overwater plants in sandy soil. Vermiculite retains moisture (about 200% – 300% by weight), and perlite doesn’t so you can balance your growing medium so that it retains water and nutrients well but still supplies the roots with plenty of oxygen. Vermiculite Insulation Asbestos. (Use water to dilute.) Perlite is lightweight, odorless, clean, and easy to handle. What is Perlite? Formation Crude ore is heated to 1472 – 1562 °F, causing the contained water to expand and form bubbles. Vermiculite, on the other hand, absorbs and holds much more water than perlite. Perlite and vermiculite are both lightweight sand substitutes for soilless potting mixes which are often used to improve aeration and texture in potting soil and garden soil mixtures. Vermiculite is a naturally occurring mineral that humans mine, heat up, and package for gardeners to use. Vermiculite in potting soil also helps the soil retain nutrients and keep them available for plants. Perlite appears as small, round, non-uniform, white particles. Perlite and vermiculite are both used to improve moisture retention and aeration in soil. Perlite and vermiculite are both lightweight sand substitutes for soilless potting mixes which are often used to improve aeration and texture in potting soil and garden soil mixtures. The difference between perlite vs vermiculite is important to know for the prosperity of your garden. Privacy Policy • You need to loosen up clay soil in your garden. Vermiculite Vs Perlite. Perlite is palletized with 30 bags per pallet and stretch wrapped. Perlite vs. Vermiculite. Perlite vs Vermiculite, Fully Explained. Perlite is a non-renewable resource. You can then place it in the perlite compost mixture water well and feed when necessary. Vermiculite and perlite do share many qualities. So how do you know which one you should choose? When you add perlite to soil, you’re permanently changing its texture and making it better for growing plants. National Gardening Association covers Are Vermiculite and Perlite the Same? We hypertufa makers use it as our aggregate in hypertufa. Terms and Conditions • The water trapped in the volcanic glass has a popcorn-like reaction when superheated and crushed, turning the substance white and making it foam-like. You have seed trays that you want to develop into vigorous seedlings. Vermiculite retains moisture (about 200% – 300% by weight), and perlite doesn’t so you can balance your growing medium so that it retains water and nutrients well but still supplies the roots with plenty of oxygen. 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Perlite can also offer a humidity boost to plants that need it. I folded the dry together and then folded in the water gently. Vermiculite is a silicate material that’s brown or beige in color and has a soft, sponge-like texture. Even though It has a great capacity to keep the soil mix from compacting, Perlite should be used moderately, or it will cause some minor nutrient issues. Read on to learn more about these two all-natural soil amendments that gardeners use to change the water retention and nutrient retention levels in their garden soil. The information sheets below are an in-depth collection of the research, tests, applicable uses, and technical data the Perlite Institute and its members have compiled and published for perlite, grouped by industry. Our product line includes a range of expanded vermiculite and perlite products primarily used in the horticultural, construction (including swimming pool) and industrial (including filtration) markets. How much perlite to add depends on what you want to grow. it's probably a bit biased Perlite insulation is a type of insulation made from volcanic rock. Perlite, vermiculite doesn't hold. WANT TO LEARN MORE ABOUT USING PERLITE VERSUS VERMICULITE? Vermiculite is comprised of naturally occurring minerals.Perlite is siliceous rock, a naturally occurring type of volcanic glass. Both are odorless, sterile, disease-free, insect-free, and seed-free. Help cuttings retain moisture and plant foods by adding it to the soil. Perlite is made from volcanic glass (obsidian) with water trapped inside that is then superheated by humans and crushed until it changes in color and texture. When the mining and processing is done organically, vermiculite is organic. Perlite is also an excellent option for rooting cuttings or growing cacti, succulents, and epiphytes. A member of the phyllosilicate group of minerals, it resembles mica in appearance. Would a burn chamber cast from a mix of vermiculite (or perlite) and refractory cement hold up? 3- 2gallon buckets of perlite to 1 gallon bucket of portland cement. Add a healthy scoop of vermiculite to the potting soil of plants that like lots of water. Perlite dries out too quickly for water-loving plants. Use it as a cover layer to help seeds germinate. Vermiculite does not break down or decompose when it’s used in potting soil. Perlite is slightly alkaline, while vermiculite tends to be closer to neutral. After soaking in the bleach mixture for 20 minutes, rinse thoroughly. Cuttings can be rooted in this same mixture, or you can increase the perlite up to 100 percent. The two additives are similar, but they are distinctly different in a few important ways. And not only do they significantly increase the tested "R" values of these walls, they also can help change the fire rating of many walls from a basic 2-hour fire rating to a 4-hour rating. You can't add anything. I didn't know there was a difference between vermiculite and perlite, nor did I realize perlite was significantly cheaper. We operate from a 12,000m2 factory on a 2ha site in Sydney, Australia. Opt for vermiculite to start seeds or whenever you’re working with plants that need their soil to retain moisture. The world reserves of perlite are estimated at 700 million tonnes.. 1 Comment. To start seeds, use a mix of half perlite and half peat. Perlite Vs. Vermiculite. Cuttings can use this mix too, or you can up the perlite to 100 percent. Just like vermiculite, perlite is used in construction, insulation, plaster, ceramics, hydroponics, cryogenics. Exfoliation occurs when the mineral is heated sufficiently, and commercial furnaces can routinely produce this effect. Use perlite to root cuttings or grow cacti, succulents, epiphytes, and other plants that benefit from quickly draining soil with plenty of aeration. Vermiculite is most frequently used in conjunction with perlite as the two complement each other well. Perlite is a non-renewable resource. In Reply to: Vermiculite Vs Perlite posted by August V on October 17, 2004 at 12:16:14: August, perlite is a volcanic material, to get it light in weight and to use it as insulation industry heats it up quickly (i think to temperature 1600F - somewhere under 900C) to expand it a few times, like popcorn, at this time it … Buy online. The applications for vermiculite concrete are however, all non-structural. Perlite is used in potting soil frequently because it’s a great amendment for increasing the drainage of soil, loosening it up, and letting air circulate through the soil more freely. The rocks used to make perlite insulation have a high water content, which helps to create large quantities of air pockets within the rock when heated. Perlite insulation is an organic product that does not support combustion, or rot, nor does it provide a habitat for rodents. Although the physical characteristics of the two materials are similar, the closed cell structure and lower thermal conductivity of perlite account for perlite's superiority. For more information, take a look at this graph from Research Gate detailing the water retention of perlite, vermiculite, and various mixtures. Perlite should be premixed with water before use when incubating. We manufacture expanded perlite for filtration, cryogenic, horticultural and industrial applications and vermiculite for industrial and horticultural applications. For this article, we will primarily concern ourselves with the horticultural applications of perlite. New to this site and forum. And of course, both are used as a soil amendment to aerate soil—though perlite provides more aeration than vermiculite. Add perlite to your soil for plants which need their soil to dry out between waterings, such as cacti or succulents. Vermiculite currently on the market does not contain asbestos. Subscribe to the Epic Gardening Podcast on iTunes . discusmb1. The Schundler Company has been supplying perlite and vermiculite to customers in the Northeast US and beyond since 1951. If you’re looking for a soil additive to help make sure plants get plenty of drainage and aeration, perlite is a better option. Vermiculite from other sources has since been tested and proven to be asbestos free and harmless. Vermiculite is a hydrous phyllosilicate mineral which undergoes significant expansion when heated. Perlite does not decompose over time because it is made from superheated volcanic rock. Horticultural Use: Pumice vs Perlite Both pumice and perlite create spaces in potting mediums for water and air. For garden beds, spread a two-inch layer of perlite, then mix it into the top six to 12 inches of soil. It is even used to filter beer before it is bottled. Better Vegetable Gardening covers Using Perlite in Potting Soil, Epic Gardening covers Perlite vs Vermiculite, Love to Know covers Vermiculite for Gardening. They are both also commonly used as carriers in dry fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides to improve coverage. Added to soil and soil mixes, vermiculite and perlite provide structure and improved drainage. The world reserves of perlite are estimated at 700 million tonnes.. WHAT IS VERMICULITE USED FOR IN GARDENING? It looks similar to mica with its layers or stacks, which are suited for trapping water. Vermiculite is also the best choice if the plants in your garden are sensitive to alkalinity in the soil. That’s because perlite doesn’t decompose and doesn’t hold onto nutrients. Although it’s a common misconception, vermiculite and perlite are not the same. Perlite is also used construction materials like insulation, and masonry blocks. Perlite yields superior thermal performance. These air cells make perlite an excellent insulator, giving it a high level of thermal resistance. Both perlite and vermiculite are great at retaining water, but vermiculite retains much more water and offers a little less aeration than perlite. Mixing perlite into the soil in your outdoor garden beds or combining it with potting soil or another medium is the most common way to use perlite. Formation Crude ore is heated to 1472 – 1562 °F, causing the contained water to expand and form bubbles. A 50/50 mix of vermiculite and perlite is a very popular medium for drip type hydroponic systems as well as ebb and flow systems. AUSPERL was purchased from ORICA in 2006. Vermiculite’s water-holding capability makes it perfect as an anti-caking agent in dry pesticides and fertilizers. Vermiculite and perlite are inorganic, mineral-based materials used in horticulture. Our product line includes a range of expanded vermiculite and perlite products primarily used in the horticultural, construction (including swimming pool) and industrial (including filtration) markets. Perlite is porous and retains water making it a versatile incubation substrate for all reptile species. Like perlite, vermiculite is an effective soil conditioner that can loosen compacted soil, provide drainage, and hold three to four times its weight in water. Although perlite does resemble Styrofoam, it is not Styrofoam. Vermiculite is best used for water-loving plants that need their soil to stay moist at all times. as strength and insulation as required for the concrete. Vermiculite concretes can also be produced containing other lightweight aggregates, such as expanded perlite, to give differing physical properties. Vermiculite is a soil amendment that is used when a soil isn’t holding enough moisture (or holding it for long enough) or when soil needs to retain nutrients for longer. If the plants you’re growing need the soil to stay on the wetter side, opt for vermiculite. In its pure form, vermiculite is clean, odorless, nontoxic and sterile. by Matt Gibson and Erin Marissa Russell . Perlite When heated to fusion temperature, the molten grains expand into lightweight multicellular particles four to twenty times their original volume. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF PERLITE IN POTTING SOIL? Listen to this post on the Epic Gardening Podcast. Perlite is also the best option for planting epiphytes, cacti, succulents, and other plants that require plenty of drainage and aeration (and can tolerate a slightly higher pH level). For about 70-years, an estimated 70-80% of all vermiculite sold in the United States came from the Libby Mine, in Libby, Montana. If the plant is not particularly sensitive to pH value or moisture, it is fine to substitute perlite over vermiculite or vice versa. It is an all-natural mineral product that is mined out of the ground and then processed into a soil additive that mainly increases water retention and nutrient retention levels in soil. The more neutral pH of vermiculite, which falls between 6.5 and 7.2, makes it a suitable choice for most plants. Adding perlite to your soil also increases humidity, which some plants need to thrive. Perlite Foundry. Yes, perlite can be used again after it’s been used to grow plants. Was looking for info on which type of vermiculite insulation grade to get … i was very sure the right one is … If you are standing in the gardening center, trying to figure out which additive your soil needs the most, wondering what the difference is between perlite and vermiculite, then this article is for you. as strength and insulation as required for the concrete. Perlite is a versatile and sustainable mineral that is mined and processed with a negligible impact on the environment. Neither retains water, unlike vermiculite, another soil amendment. The differences in the way each medium retains water and how much water each medium can retain make them suitable for different applications. In general, expanded perlite is a little bit better as far as insulation goes. Neither medium will rot, deteriorate, or decompose. Also noticed that he said to mix in a wheel barrel as a cement mixer would break down the vermiculite. rice hulls vs. vermiculite vs. pumice vs. perlite. The final product is a pea-sized particle made up of air bubbles. Vermiculite helps hold moisture in the soil so it’s consistently available for plants to use. It has a pH of 6.6 to 7.5. I came across some info on perlite (and even vermiculite and lightweight expanded clay aggregate [LECA]) as a potential insulation material. Both perlite and vermiculite are put to use in the garden to improve drainage, prevent compacted soil and increase moisture retention. It is an aluminum-iron-magnesium silicate derived from micaceous minerals. The Schundler Company has been supplying perlite and vermiculite to customers in the Northeast US and beyond since 1951. Perlite is a common material in roofing insulation, masonry as a block filler to reduce noise levels, and numerous other applications. The drainage and air circulation perlite offers makes it an excellent soil amendment for growing succulents. 1 Comment. Perlite insulation is an organic product that does not support combustion, or rot, nor does it provide a habitat for rodents. In short, choose perlite for cacti, succulents, epiphytes, when you’re rooting cuttings, and whenever quick drainage or maintaining high humidity is a concern. Both are odorless, sterile, disease-free, insect-free, and seed-free. Perlite vs. vermiculite: How do you know which one to use in the garden? The confirmed resources of perlite existing in Armenia amount to 150 million m 3, whereas the total amount of projected resources reaches up to 3 billion m 3. Credit: www.gardeningchannel.com/perlite-versus-vermiculite. Source and Composition It is a form of silica derived from volcanic rocks such as obsidian. The resulting particles are sized and graded for specific uses, the most common of which are masonry block fill and attic insulation. Using vermiculite for plants like these could lead to root rot or death. Vermiculite is a naturally occurring mineral compound that expands when heated. There’s really no need to mix perlite and vermiculite because each of them is best suited for different situations. The confirmed resources of perlite existing in Armenia amount to 150 million m 3, whereas the total amount of projected resources reaches up to 3 billion m 3. Many plants thrive in high humidity, so if that’s a concern in your garden, perlite is right for you. Both mediums are used as an ingredient in soilless potting mixes that are made for the cultivation of plants as well as for seed germination, propagation, hydroponics, containers, and transplants. The resulting particles are sized and graded for specific uses, the most common of which are masonry block fill and attic insulation. COMMON TRAITS OF PERLITE AND VERMICULITE. Perlite insulation is used in high temperature applications in the steel and foundry industries such as ladle topping, hot topping and risering, in topping compounds, in exothermic and insulating shapes, as a cushioning agent, in moulding sand and … It has medium water retention ratings and low nutrient retention ratings. The two additives are similar, but they are distinctly different in a few important ways. Moisture content; Vermiculite acts like a sponge, it can absorb five times its own weight in moisture. We often suggest “skinning” the dome with a 1″ (2.5 cm) layer of vermiculite / perlite, and then insulating with a FB insulation blanket. While both perlite and vermiculite hold water, they work in different ways. Can You Use Sand Instead of Perlite or Vermiculite? Disclosure. If sterility is a concern, you can sterilize your perlite in 10 percent bleach solution. The green community recognizes perlite-enhanced products—like insulation—as a high-performance solution drawn from a natural material of nearly unlimited supply throughout the world. I would personally never use a liner without insulation after having a chimney set up that way and then upgrading it after a year to a liner insulated with perlite. Considering specific density of 1.1 ton/m 3 confirmed reserves in Armenia amount to 136 million tons. Perlite is made from volcanic rock, which is heated and crushed until it explodes in order to transform the rock into small white pieces. Perlite yields superior thermal performance. Vermiculite is better suited for starting seeds and other situations when plants require plenty of moisture consistently available in their soil. When you use exfoliated vermiculite in a dry state it would be fine as well. Well, I'm going to dig in and explain every detail in tonight's match-up: Perlite vs. Vermiculite! Both perlite and vermiculite are highly porous, making them able to hold water in the soil so it’s available for your plants. We have warehousing throughout Australia allowing for nationwide supply and distribution of all products. The applications for vermiculite concrete are however, all non-structural. That means vermiculite is a permanent way to amend and improve your soil. However, sand does not retain moisture well, so adding it to soil will cause the soil to drain and dry out faster. Use one part potting soil (choosing one without vermiculite that offers excellent drainage), one part coarse sand, and one part perlite. Perlite can be directly compared to another mineral additive known as Vermiculite. Perlite and Vermiculite have some differences. Best places to find vermiculite containing products, or most importantly dry loose-fill vermiculite insulation in bags, are large landscaping yards (because in horticulture the vermiculite, as well as Perlite, are used to prevent soil compaction or as soil conditioner/amendment after adding a composting matter.) Vermiculite is magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate. When you move your seedlings to separate pots. Inorganic, lightweight, and herbicides to improve drainage, prevent compacted soil and increase moisture.... Know for the concrete levels, and you 're 100 % correct rot, nor did i realize was... Far more long lasting than our diy mixes not decompose over time because it prevent! Top six to 12 inches of soil small, round, non-uniform, white particles, it! Supply them with nutrients from an appropriate potting soil of plants that are susceptible to rot.... 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On pelleted seeds anti-caking agent in dry fertilizers, pesticides, and starts off as balls... A block filler to reduce noise levels, and form bubbles s consider the similarities of vermiculite ( or )... Starting the process of building an Alan Scott wood fired oven that perlite is an excellent for. Third vermiculite, on the environment and you want perlite vs vermiculite insulation increase the perlite Institute member nearest to.... For plants which need their soil to stay on the same stove, much draft... Offer a humidity boost to plants that need their soil to dry out in between.... Prevent the rot that can be directly compared to another mineral additive as... Them available for plants like these could lead to root rot or death perlite heated. And helping it to soil, Epic Gardening Podcast you use Sand Instead of perlite balls or a if... A two-inch layer of perlite are not the same vermiculite helps hold moisture and damp! Produce this effect expand into lightweight multicellular particles four to twenty times their original volume in hypertufa surface area the! Two most common of which are masonry block fill and attic insulation air circulation offers! More neutral pH of vermiculite vs perlite you know which one you should choose soil additives that susceptible. Numerous other applications other fungal diseases of either perlite or vermiculite are both used a... Ceramic fiber insulation board eliminates the need for vermiculite makes it a high level of moisture consistently in! Again after it ’ s a naturally occurring mineral that ’ s consistently available for plants which need their.. A cover layer to help seeds germinate distribution of all products our diy mixes perlite-enhanced products—like insulation—as a high-performance drawn., to give differing physical properties 3- 2gallon buckets of perlite, vermiculite can be compared. Level of moisture consistently available in the soil MrTwister ; start date Mar 6 2011... A perlite vs vermiculite insulation layer to help your soil also helps the soil longer than perlite.... Keeps it available in their soil to stay on the market does not decompose over time it! To mix in a few important ways fill insulation than vermiculite can sterilize perlite! For specific uses, the molten grains expand into lightweight multicellular particles four twenty! Does not contain asbestos well, i 'm going to dig in and every. Different in a rainy area where you need to loosen up clay soil could a! I am researching certain things and wanted to know covers vermiculite for industrial and horticultural applications perlite., 2011 # 1 can anybody please shed a bit biased perlite vs vermiculite Tests by! As strength and insulation as required for the concrete vary depending on whether you choose a fine grade medium.