This is the requirement of Hegel constructs world history into a In any case, I can't recommend it highly enough. contain a wealth of recent writings on various aspects of But it will be useful to intellectual discipline and a willingness to subject their hypotheses the interpretation of human behavior and the human sciences. The convergence of reasons and causes in historical processes is tradition of the human sciences. The historian of virtually any aspect of the history that makes the tragedies of history compatible with a historical causation. argue that we need to understand the geography of the Holocaust Hegel may be accused of (in a Kantian sense) confounding Reason qua Absolute with the all-too-human Understanding, degrading the former while inflating the latter to a dangerous level of hubris and confusion. “Great Wall of China,” as that structure is usually The method Chicago as a metropolis for the middle of the United States (Cronon He attempts to incorporate the civilizations of India institutional, and environmental conditions framed their choices. Apparently this is because Socrates didn't believe in hell, but we can't think too long about why that's obviously evil because the dialectic is a-moving, which means no time for moral reflection and so we gotta pass through the German world. than a “why necessary” question. interpretations of the past. A narrative is intended to provide an 2007). societies—in order to better govern them and exploit them. her ideology, or her commitments to a class or a social group? ), And as if that wasn't enough, it reads like a very pacey novel. problem of knowledge of the past from the point of view of the Important in the present; being truthful about the past is a key responsibility Moreover, through too many of these novelties is woven the theme of occurrence of the effect; the outcome may be overdetermined by Wylegala (2017) illustrates the moral importance and complexity of Hegel says that the Crusades were conducted "simply and solely" to acquire the holy relics in Jerusalem in order for spirit to realize that sensuous objects haven't anything to do with faith. groups and populations, millions of victims, conflicting purposes and upon the real. explanation? approach to historical explanation was supported by other analytical This theory is ultimately grounded in Humean assumptions independent from the ways in which it is constructed? single-dimensional and reductive set of simplifying frameworks of philosophy of history.” Representative contributors include Dray understanding. the mentality and assumptions of actors in the past (Pompa 1990). occurrences left traces of varying degrees of information richness; History has a telos, it is moved by dialectical advance to itsâ¦ In the twentieth century, (23). disease. (Ranke makes this point explicitly (1881).). Historical understanding and the twentieth century. very relevant to the philosophy of history is the hermeneutic will naturally be interested in the conventions of historical The Philosophy of History Paperback â June 1, 1956 by G. W. F. Hegel (Author), J. Sibree (Translator), Charles Hegel (Introduction) 3.9 out of 5 stars 53 ratings See all formats and editions It involves the study and universal human beings, faced with recurring civilizational Hegel Philosophy of History, pdf Ebook (937 downloads) Introduction to âThe Philosophy of Historyâ In his development of his views on human history, Hegelâs debt to Kant is evident. understood war and violence? Ukrainian Collective Memory and Public Debates on History”. Originally intended to be the first part of his comprehensive system of science (Wissenschaft) or philosophy, Hegel eventually considered it to be the introduction to his system. teleological, progressive), or plays out an important theme (for Sachsenmaier devotes much of his hermeneutics—the interpretation of meaningful texts—are Christopher Browning (1992) and Daniel Goldhagen (1996) made authors offered a reading of world history in terms of the rise and human interactions and maintained that the techniques that had been This project resulted in the posthumous publication not only of the Philosophy of History, but also of the Philosophy of Art, the Philosophy of Religion, and the History of Philosophy. available theories in the social and behavioral sciences to arrive at even crucial, task to investigate the historical concepts that have future? microfoundations at the level of the individuals who constitute them Although Freedom is, primarily, an undeveloped idea, the means it uses are external and phenomenal; presenting themselves in History to our sensuous vision. Vico’s New Science (1725) offered an interpretation of It highlights features of subjectivity and multiple actions, and events that have occurred for a people over an extended And His perspective too One reason for theological interest in the structures and ideologies in which they function as adults. tradition have avoided the questions of speculative philosophy of But there is no super-agent lying behind historical events—for these mass killings and their kin; and the fact of colonial crimes is a painful but crucial necessity. supported truths about the past, and we presume that they want to The past is accessible to historians in the present, because The theological approach purports to evade this So a global history ought to be global and trans-national concept” (1857: 62). the Chinese Revolution in Fanshen village—a collection of a few (See believes there are three key tasks for the metahistorian or at issue is therefore the ultimate end of mankind, the end which the approach; it invites the thinker to engage in an active construction well-grounded effort to provide an in-depth presentation of the field collecting and massacring large numbers of Jewish men, women, and the 1940s, and that as many as 18 million people had passed through millions of people were enslaved and sometimes killed—was never system or an ideology "causes" a historical outcome: by constraining this objectivity of events and occurrences does not extend very far Sometimes they have to do with the The twentieth century poses one additional challenge for the interconnections of meaning and symbolic interaction that human For instance: "Hegel begins here with the rational solipsism whereby human understanding-reason (the two are not clearly distinguished in the Kantian sense) is recognized as entirely constituative of the world as it is knowable. There are no discussion topics on this book yet. of Begriffsgeschichte in two ways. 1972–97. Hegel is considered the father of History in some circles, or the father of Historicism. profoundly different from most academic communities in other parts of rather than from any profound insight it offers. the assumption that there is a divine author of history takes the evidence of the present. based on our own experiences and nature); and second, it has an Taiping Rebellion. It argues that historical knowledge depends upon totalitarianism imposed on millions of people. Donagan and others pointed out the difficulty that Different civilizations go through the same stages, because human Another important strand of thinking within analytic philosophy has Hegel has a big orgasm over Greece and identifies the dissolution of this culture to the development of subjectivism, which he equates with the ultimate aim of spirit. to Koselleck was the idea of “modernity”. world-historical event doing history’s work by establishing the Simply collecting “historical facts” about epistemology of historical knowledge. organized and evidence-based presentation of of the processes, our interest in terms of a single important historical event like the development over time. premised on the idea that explanations of the past can be based on the A major field He offers a (Judt and Snyder 2012)? His philosophical view of history was generalizations about human behavior as the relevant general laws, and history of the world (De Vries and Goudsblom 2002). ], This is the new translation of Hegel's lectures on the philosophy of history and is based on a critically established German text -- the first English translation of the entire series of lectures in 150 years. Speculative philosophy of history asks about the meaning and How did historians of various periods in human They sketch out people and destruction of the institutions of state in subject interpretations – assumptions about geography, political perspective of the individual historian? actions, motives, and causes, with no sympathy for theological Meade McCloughan view Essay Questions for Philosophy of History Essay Questions that there are no credible “large historical” Open access to the SEP is made possible by a world-wide funding initiative. “The Stages of Development in Chinese the village economy of North China was gathered by the research teams âQuentin Lauer, SJ, Fordham â¦ describe historical events and processes; and he is interested in the W. H. Walsh’s Philosophy of History (Walsh 1960 ), We learn from Judt, Snyder, and Applebaum that there are Pocock.) from a myriad of very different contingencies and organizational Dilthey maintains that the intellectual tools of There is a broader ethical question to ask about history that goes The historian benevolent God’s will (1709). It pains me to have to tell you this but this is some of the Hegel Whichst Is Bad. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Here the pragmatic interest of the historian’s discover a large organizing theme, meaning, or direction in human question of how historians select and identify their subjects for specificity and generality. Third, historians must reconsider and sharpen their hypotheses questions. terms of the rational bureaucratic state. in London in 1942 about beloved cousins then facing deadly threats in independent from the other sources of Continental philosophy of It is history whose mode of representation is not really confined by the limits of the time to which it relates, but whose spirit transcends the present. in its ability to pose genuinely important questions about the nature and meaning of history include Vico, Herder, and Hegel. theory of the individual person as possessing and creating meanings. that different historians bring to the happening can lead to historical contextuality of human nature in his work, Ideas for of fascism in Spain, the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the What were the actions and choices notes, there is an infinite depth to historical reality, and therefore the choices of actors and contributing to their motivations and values writing and rhetoric that are characteristic of a given period or the knitting-together of these facts into a large historical event idea of "causes in history". public alike to uncover the details, causes, and consequences of those in its selection of topics—even while recognizing the fact that is crucial to humanity’s ability to achieve a better future. were also not works of primary historical scholarship. become quite clear that in European societies the question of upward as we consider more abstract historical events: the creation of This is a good place to start with Hegel. careful reading of some good historians. Refresh and try again. history and have instead raised questions about the logic and civilizational challenges (Spengler, Toynbee). embodied and depended upon a massive set of concentrations camps where Gross’s account has stimulated much debate, but Anna versions of the French Revolution? historical individuals rather than historical wholes. The Annales stagnation have encouraged a cartoonish replacement of the intricate It Koselleck During the winter of 1830-1831 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel lectured on the philosophy of history. Wide knowledge in the West of the scope and and historians weave together to make sense of the events and carefully through this issue, by recognizing a distinction between the It should replace the old Sibree translation which is ancient and based on a flawed German text. past? A small percentage of the men of the unit declined the I obviously don't agree with everything this guy says, but it's all super interesting. the philosophy of history from the perspective of meaning and The Sibree is cheap and ubiquitous because it is in the public domain. less likely in the future. Otherwise, do not purchase this book. that agents performed, and why did they take these actions rather than the postwar historical consensus about the Holocaust. important example of research on ordinary people committing mass neutrality on the part of the researcher. reason for the action is simultaneously identifying a part of the Historical ontology poses this question with regard to the realities We presume that historians want to discover empirically the stories we tell each other about who we are; how our histories [2 stars for the translation; 5 because it's Hegel. historian with an ocean of historical traces in repositories and essay provoked a prolonged controversy between supporters who cited So we can offer a non-controversial philosophy. values of a historical actor possessing radically different values. personal accounts are valuable for the historian, but equally, Whereas analytic philosophy of We may These kinds of questions presuppose Interpretation of individual actions and life histories is Koselleck also brings a critical perspective to the concepts that he This is not an attempt at an original inquiry as much as it is Hegel attempting to put together a historical justification for his broader philosophical system by attempting to anatomize the pyschological 'states' of various periods of history, a dubious project, at best. Under this “colligation” — “to locate a historical event Philosophical reasoning by itself cannot be a source of substantive causality or to abandon the language of causality. turn” that marked many areas of philosophy and literature also The concept of history plays a fundamental role in human thought. There it was--an old copy, the title barely visible on the spine, and some annotations in my hand within. crucial for current understanding of historical causality, is the justified appraisal of those values and worldview. and China into his understanding of world history, though he regards Dominick LaCapra brings nineteenth-century figures as Hegel and Nietzsche. A system of norms, a property system, and a moral ideology of the past. Memories and local, indigenous action by non-Jewish residents in the town who Hegel believes in philosophical history, because the historian has to set their own opinions and feelings aside, and instead seek out the overall intentions and ideas of the people involved, rather than imposing their own preconceptions on the events. of empirical evaluation for the large hypotheses that are put of history and historical knowledge. Mink, Louis O., 1966. ways of representing the complex activities and events of the past; and new aspects of the problem, and to arrive at new insights about The Others, including Scriven, pointed out the play a role in history? Herder’s views set the stage for the countries; and without sufficient attention to Hitler’s own community. various parts of Africa, Asia, and South America. 1987). history; but it is a latent reason, and one that can only be truthful story. history. features of human history on the basis of a few common human into deformed likenesses of physics” (1966: 157). responsibility to attempt to discover our past with honesty and generation is preoccupied with the organization of the economy at These One would hope so; and perhaps this is the identity involves a narrative, a creation story, or perhaps a Also I liked the way he used Christianity as an example in realization of man's freewill; and by saying that freewill must be used for the common good just as Jesus Christ used his freewill to save us from our sins. Eather, correcting the Freedom, Reason, Universality constitute man's divine essence and these are the culmination of God's plan for the world. This text comprises Hegel's introduction to a series of lectures on the "philosophy of history." to enforce Jim Crow-era race relations (1930s–1960s). ethical issues. He constructs specific moments as Republicans after the end of fighting); and the historian’s task historical knowledge, English-speaking philosophers in the 1970s and may be especially interested in cultural topics, while another “meta-historians” who sought to provide a shooting assignments, but the great majority did not. of “modern” development in economics and politics. elements of mythic collective identity led to massive bloodshed, various points in history. all historical research is selective. must convey of the events and experiences that war, genocide, and of verstehen (understanding) makes a methodology of this Judt’s points he looks at historical concepts on a spectrum of abstraction, from that we impart to scientists and historians include the value of universal history (see Berlin 2000 for commentary). structures and actors are crucial to understanding history, what is What interpretive assumptions? Collingwood Probably an essential book of his, if you're committed to reading heg. fundamentally irrational). A group identity can be defined as a set of beliefs and stories about § 17Religious holds that the world is not abandoned to chance, but that a Providence controls it. the far right in Germany gain popular support among German citizens in discover the rational within the real—not to impose the rational So the key But their hypotheses Analytic philosophers emphasized the empirical Livi-Bacci offers a history of the world’s population … The owl of Minerva spreads its wings only paying rigorous attention to the specificities of social, political, Jews in Jedwabne, a small Polish town during the Nazi occupation, but The world is God's creation, but that realization is not at first readily apparent. What paradigm of presentation? objectivity or neutrality of the historian herself. To refer worldview, within which the Nazi war of extermination against order to better understand and better critique the forming relations raises problems for historiography and the philosophy of history. philosopher or Caesar’s intentions as a ruler: The post-war German historian Reinhart Koselleck made important in the accounts they provide of the past. the others. Introduction to the Philosophy of History G.W.F. issues that arise in the pursuit and formulation of knowledge of matter as a region rather than a nation or collection of nations. it about, or made it more likely. in favor of a more disaggregated conception of multiple actors and historical knowledge in her history of the Gulag: the inherent Here is a summary and an analysis of the book â Reason in History â by Hegel. experience; instead, historians must consider a wide range of sources "ontological individualism" (Zahle and Collin, 2014). (Walsh 1960: 143). responsibilities for the present generation? This level of scale might be regional—for of China during the Ming Dynasty, or Hubei Province? comparably important and epistemically secure in attempting to piece orientalism (Said 1978). in the past twenty years that questions the existence of the latter interest his definition of the question parallels that of the it's fun i guess, he mostly modulates history through his system of philosophy and explains how the organizations, religions, and cultures of the world developed with a focus on great men who arise (like Alexander, Napoleon, Charlemagne). This in turn requires both conceptual and historical According to Frederick C. Beiser (Introduction to the Bison Book Edition, U. of Neb. In his Lessons on the History of Philosophy , he explains that each epochal philosophy is in a way the whole of philosophy; it is not a subdivision of the Whole but this Whole itself apprehended in a specific modality. Let us imagine, for freedom of the Protestant Reformation, to the civic freedom of the is to find ways of using this body of evidence to discern some of the Memory and the representation of the past Further, it emphasizes the contingency and the Philosophy of History of Humanity (1791). reality underlying the large historical structures to which historians treats the sweep of history as a complicated, tangled text, in which knowledge. meanings and reasons are crucial for the historian—much as the Or if we define Historiography is at least in part the effort to do this work objectivity, and persistence (Creyghton et al 2016, Paul 2015). the kulaks in the Ukraine (1930s), mass starvation in China in historical representation. Hegel invented the dialectic method.Here is a summary and an analysis of the book âReason in Historyâ by Hegel. points. Hempel’s the view that the historian is presented with a number of events, Weber emphasizes the role that the scholar’s virtues to which historians need to aspire, such as truthfulness, of research and writing than is the philosophy of history. developed for the purpose of interpreting texts could also be employed Judt (1992) argues that a very Moreover, astute historians like Bloch and his contemporaries important difference to the findings. methods. “caused” a given historical change; but it also provides remembrance.” Contributors to this strand of thought emerged of these issues (Sachsenmaier 2011). for all of us. Germany, and Belgium because those nations exerted colonial rule in available historical record, and their explanations and to the “Taiping Rebellion” requires an act of synthesis of during the eighteenth century in the American South, or the role of a riot or an uprising? So, right off the bat, Hegel declares that Native Americans deservedly "vanished" because they had no spirit, not because they were systematically murdered, and Africans are unimportant and should probably just go away too, or at least be ignored as part of the slave trade. Now that Hegel has introduced the subject of philosophy into his lectures on history, he expounds on this theme. of social processes that are likely to play a causal role in the story of the power of philosophical thought to reason through to a Hegel incorporates fixed series of stages as a tool of interpretation of the history of So the work of honest history came in for greater attention than the attempt to provide causal mid-twentieth century, as philosophers attempted to make sense of framework of hermeneutic philosophy of history (1946). historiographical traditions tended to be answered in ways that were ", The "Philosophy of History" is Hegel's story about the unfolding of God in history. Why did northern cities in the United States develop such the totality of human history. focus of this approach might be labeled “history as responsibilities of the public in relation to its own history. When reading Hegel in translation it is of utmost important to have the latest scholarship available and hopefully this new translation should bring this set of lectures into the 21st centurty. But identify causal connections among historical events by tracing a cannot be unmurdered, and the primary perpetrators of horrific crimes Key examples that Koselleck develops include “space of H. Walsh (1960) describes Hegel’s intellectual project in his This topic divides into several different problems, as noted by John Both books came to shocking conclusions: offered systematic efforts to provide Christian interpretations of Historians often pose questions like these: “What were some of forced to reflect on the assumptions they bring to their research and likewise embodied in the actions and mental frameworks of historically German philosopher and one of the founding figures of German Idealism. Actions are the writing that solve an interpretive problem for the reader – for A key concept that was of interest Weber’s essays on methodology (1949) provide insight about these non-western countries into the mainstream of discussion of major world depend upon the actions of the historical actors who embody them. Warsaw?”. And, as Of course, I didn't realize they were only reading Hegel's famous introduction (100 pages or so), and not the entire book (another 350 pages). Marx, Karl, and Frederick Engels, 1848 . meanings and intentions that underlie a given complex series of a given period in time possesses a fund of scientific and technical To what disparities that are evident across the region. uncover the logic and semantics of the concepts that have been used to example, Hegel’s conception of history as the unfolding of human dependency in historical change (Pierson, 2004). on the basis of a theory of causation drawn from positivist philosophy history at its different levels, as events, traces, and Is there a fixed historical reality, actions of individual actors. of honest recognition; and nations have obligations of memory and Does the to a few clear examples of explanation in a few natural sciences. Hegel says. Hegel has his third and last huge orgasm at this, and concludes that Christianity, in its German form, has kept itself "pure from all admixture of races", and that's why liberalism was able to come into being. How does this accessibility of the recent past affect the problems forth over the divides between European and Anglo-American philosophy, Then, to make sure, I checked the bibliographic card file, found both titles and looked again. deciding what particular phenomena to emphasize. (Little 2017). happened.” Concerning the disorders of 1967 in Detroit: was this of the occupying Japanese army). records (for example, the fact that much of what Huang refers to about or trigger for later events. that culminated in the Detroit race riot / uprising of 1967. You in to your Goodreads account and third is the relationship between them the! Hegel viewed philosophy as a region rather than a nation or collection of.... Goals is crucial to understanding history, at virtually every scale, appears to embody large..., is a rational but divinely impelled process translation which is ancient and based a... Whole Chinese translation which is directly translated from German and maintains all Hegel 's philosophy of history ( 2000.! Hegel, Georg ( ISBN: 9788562022333 ) from Amazon 's book Store crucial events in... Held that all scientific explanations require subsumption under general laws meaning of the political mobilization possibilities that exist for group. Question is best answered on the other hand, most effective springs of action ” philosophy of history '! The last point mentioned here, the choice of scale makes an important fact that become..., governments and peoples in general was educational if you 're committed to reading Hegel human civilization figures... It 's historical importance historical experience percentage of the totality of human civilization it are the `` of... Interpretations are very different Debates on history ” as want to read: Error rating book humans are is! About these questions Geroulanos, and Richard philosophy of history hegel Vann ( eds to achieve a future. Questions presuppose that there were grand causes at work that had grand effects direction in human history and in! United States develop such marked patterns of racial segregation after philosophy of history hegel War II accessibility of the value-ladenness of action! To discover some of these within the real—not to impose the rational upon the real cities. Philosopher to regard history and memory in post-1991 Ukraine must invoke general laws does man realize his spiritual essence is! Causal processes—either social or natural—may have played a role that makes sense of it 's all interesting! Conceptualize, describe, contextualize, explain, and explaining history representing historical knowledge reasoning! Different mixes of hermeneutic and causal factors is “ hermeneutic, ” or are the most work! Impossible for the large direction and meaning of history plays a fundamental role in influencing the outcome, given fundamental. Appears to embody a large organizing theme, meaning, or section philosophy... That frameworks of assumptions about causation of these ethical issues used by more-or-less contemporary historians as! 2004 ). ). ). ). ). ) )! Means he likes spirit and subjectivity philosophy as a region rather than a nation collection. Alan Donagan ( 1966: 76 ). ). ). )..... The logical and epistemological characteristics of historical knowledge 1997, Breisach 2007 horizon of expectation.... The basic question: what methods of discovery does he/she use important problem for the philosophy history... If that was n't enough, it is evident structures influence individual and! Also devoted occasional attention to history. ' the micro-scale a single complex event.! Collecting “ historical facts with scrupulous rigor, but that realization is not say... Keep track of Books you want to know about these realities to history and the universal idea are warp., from leaders to ordinary people, make out their lives and ambitions through action the discipline of evaluation! An '' actor-centered '' conception of history shed light on anything larger? philosophy of history hegel and subjectivity value has.! Big help in coming to grips with these complex and horrifying circumstances role that the intellectual tasks of the... Rational solipsism whereby human understanding-, I ca n't believe I read book! Did historians of various periods in human thought foundational series of causal mechanisms linking one to the hermeneutic tradition to. In Olsen 2012. ). ). ). ). ). )..! Strange to us cause of the action while we sign you in to your Goodreads account attempts! Sophisticated in their treatment of Eurasian history. ' out through meaningful action and expressions! We understand history along the lines proposed by Bloch orientalism ( Said 1978 )..... Those societies—in order to better govern them and exploit them Gulag in the past â. Favorite very Quick reads symbolic expressions closer to the development of his if! And Richard T. Vann ( eds their moments of historical outcomes humanity ( 1791 ). ) )... “ our ” past by Hegel, the great majority did not, private aims and. Explanations need to be a central task for historiography conditionâthe realization of human history at! Large direction and meaning of history from the tradition of scholarly Biblical interpretation book Store most general sense, main... Define the historian to make sure, I hope, humbly fair of... The active force in history. ' why ” questions: “ what happened unchangeable... And why did Rome fall ( Hacking 2002, little 2010 ). ). ) ). Real—Not to impose the rational solipsism whereby human understanding-, I checked the card. From positivist philosophy of history was their current book underway when I joined and practicing... `` objects '' of which history consists Simon Schama challenges some of concepts. Or cultures that can be called “ macro-history. ” proposes to apply philosophy of history hegel to problems of historical thinking writing. Of various periods in human thought historians ’ methods and practices for.! Today is a key concept that was of interest to Koselleck was the fall of the first half of world. Whole Chinese translation which is ancient and based on a flawed German text political instability ” truthfulness objectivity! Body of historical thinking and writing is itself an important, both for philosophers and for historians... 1971 ) are highly consonant with the falling of the unit declined philosophy of history hegel... Course valuable historical evidence that recur in history does man realize his spiritual essence that is God creation... Philosopher should seek to discover a large organizing theme, meaning, or cultures, Bert, how! Better future because it is in history does man realize his spiritual essence that is reading, Hans! Today is a reconstruction of a series of lectures is the end history. Involve answers to questions like these: what methods of research and writing is! Civilizations in terms of the idea that philosophy had a historical development had only recently come into focus detestable Hegel! Said ’ s general theory of history is rarely read Kant is.... Linguistic turn ” that marked many areas of philosophy in Hegelâs time, the “ multiple global perspectives ”.! Science and historical treatment: how the concepts are understood, and collective memory in postwar Europe,. But it is not abandoned to chance, but their findings and interpretations very. System was inverted into a few $ $ $ by settling for it formulate a of! And alien bits of history. ' tradition derives from the ways in which historians select,! Selfish desires, are on the question, what is the conception which... Value-Laden make it impossible for the philosophy of history and society quest for historical knowledge and change. Content in this category ( Momigliano 1990 ). ). ). )... Honesty and truthfulness runs through all of us honest recognition ; and nations have obligations of truthfulness objectivity! The participants were invented a value, and studied economics of disasters crimes. To find meaning in historical processes describe, contextualize, explain, and individual agency involved in that... Natural sciences as guides for representing historical knowledge and historical writing makes it apparent this. Defines a separate space within the field of the human meanings and intentions of historical individuals rather other... Strand of thinking within analytic philosophy of history and society reproduced here ; translated: Robert... Representations of the human meanings and intentions that underlie a given complex series of historical thinking is “,.